First Book of Homer's Iliad in Classics Unlocked format

Verses 1-2

Μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεὰ, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
μῆνις,
ιος, ἡ
ἀείδω,
ἀείσω,
ἤεισα
θεά,
ᾶς, ἡ
Πηλεΐδης,
αο, ὁ
Ἀχιλεύς
ῆος, ὁ
wrath sing goddess son of Peleus Achilles
noun, fem,
sg, acc
verb, act,
imper, pres,
sg, 2nd
noun, fem,
sg, voc
name, masc,
sg, gen
name, masc,
sg, gen
accusative of
direct object
imperative of
command
voccative of
addressing
subjective
genitive
subjective
genitive
no irreduceable constructions
wrath sing goddess of son
of Peleus
of Achilles
θεὰ ἄειδε οὐλομένην μῆνιν Ἀχιλῆος Πηληϊάδεω,
Goddess, sing the accursed wrath of Achilles, son of Peleus,
οὐλομένην, μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκε,
οὐλόμενος,
η, ον
ὅς,
ἥ,
μυρίος,
α, ον
Ἀχαιός,
οῦ, ὁ
ἄλγος,
εος, τό
τίθημι,
θήσω,
ἔθηκα,
τέθεικα,
τέθειμαι,
ἐτέθην
accursed who,
which,
what
countless,
innumerable
Achaean,
Greek
grief, pain,
woe, trouble
put,
place,
cause
adj, fem,
acc, sg
pron, fem,
sg, nom
adj, neut,
pl, acc
name, masc,
pl, dat
noun, neut,
pl, acc
verb, act, ind,
aor, sg, 3rd
accusative of
direct object
nominative of
subject
accusative of
direct object
dative of
indirect object
accusative of
direct object
aorist of
simple past
occurence
no irreduceable constructions
the accursed which countless to Achaeans woes caused
ἣ ἔθηκε μυρί[α] ἄλγε[α] Ἀχαιοῖς,
which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans,
1.
Μῆνιν

Declension:

Singular

N. μῆνις
G. μήνιος
D. μήνιι
A. μήνιν
V. μήνι

Dual

N. μήνιε
G. μηνίοιιν
D. μηνίοιιν
A. μήνιε
V. μήνιε

Plural

N. μήνιες
G. μηνίων
D. μηνίεσσι, μήνισι
A. μήνιας
V. μήνιες

ἄειδε,

Conjugation in active imperative present:

Singular

2. ἄειδε
3. ἀειδέτω

Dual

2. ἀείδετον
3. ἀειδέτων

Plural

2. ἀείδετε
3. ἀειδόντων

θεὰ,

Declension:

Singular

N. θεά
G. θεᾶς
D. θεᾷ
A. θεάν
V. θεά

Dual

N. θεά
G. θεῇιν
D. θεῇιν
A. θεά
V. θεά

Plural

N. θεαί
G. θεάων, θεῶν
D. θεῇσι, θεῇς, θεαῖς
A. θεάς
V. θεαί

Πηληϊάδεω

Declension:

Singular

N. Πηλεϊάδης
G. Πηλεϊάδαο, Πηλεϊάδεω
D. Πηλεϊάδῃ
A. Πηλεϊάδην
V. A. Πηλεϊάδη

Dual

N. Πηλεϊάδα
G. Πηλεϊάδῃιν
D. Πηλεϊάδῃιν
A. Πηλεϊάδα
V. Πηλεϊάδα

Plural

N. Πηλεϊάδαι
G. Πηλεϊαδάων
D. Πηλεϊάδῃσι, Πηλεϊάδῃς
A. Πηλεϊάδας
V. Πηλεϊάδαι

-δεω in Πηλεϊάδεω is a case of metathesis of quantity.

Pharr §573:

Metathesis of Quantity. — ᾱο and ηο often become εω by an exchange (metathesis) of quantity ; that is, the long vowel (ᾱ, η) becomes short (ε), while the short vowel (ο) becomes long (ω).

Ἀχιλῆος

Declension:

Singular

N. Ἀχιλεύς
G. Ἀχιλῆος
D. Ἀχιλῇι
A. Ἀχιλῆα
V. Ἀχιλεῦ

2.
οὐλομένην,

Declension:

Singular

N. οὐλομένη
G. οὐλομένης
D. οὐλομένῃ
A. οὐλομένην
V. οὐλομένη

Dual

N. οὐλομένα
G. οὐλομένῃιν
D. οὐλομένῃιν
A. οὐλομένα
V. οὐλομένα

Plural

N. οὐλομέναι
G. οὐλομενάων
D. οὐλομένῃσι, οὐλομένῃς
A. οὐλομένας
V. οὐλομέναι

Declension:

Singular

N.
G. ἥς, ἕης
D. ᾕ
A. ἥν

Dual

N. ὥ
G. οἷιν
D. οἷιν
A. ὥ

Plural

N. αἵ
G. ὧν
D. ἧσι, ἧς
A. ἅς

μυρί'

Declension:

Singular

N. μυρίoν
G. μυρίου
D. μυρίῳ
A. μυρίον
V. μυρίον

Dual

N. μυρίω
G. μυρίοιιν
D. μυρίοιιν
A. μυρίω
V. μυρίω

Plural

N. μυρία
G. μυρίων
D. μυρίοισι, μυρίοις
A. μυρία
V. μυρία

μυρί' undergoes elision.

Pharr §575:

Elision. – A short final vowel (very rarely the diphtongs αι and οι also) is regularly dropped when the next word begins with a vowel or a diphtong. This is called elision. An apostrophe (') marks the omission, as στέμματ' ἔχων (for στέμματa ἔχων) having fillets, οἴκαδ' ἱκέσθαι (οἴκαδε ἱκέσθαι) to arrive home, ἐπ' ὤμων (ἐπι ὤμων) on his shoulders.

Ἀχαιοῖς

Declension:

Singular

N. Ἀχαιός
G. Ἀχαιοῦ
D. Ἀχαιῳ
A. Ἀχαιόν
V. Ἀχαιέ

Dual

N. Ἀχαιώ
G. Ἀχαιοῖιν
D. Ἀχαιοῖιν
A. Ἀχαιώ
V. Ἀχαιώ

Plural

N. Ἀχαιοί
G. Ἀχαιῶν
D. Ἀχαιοῖσι, Ἀχαιοῖς
A. Ἀχαιούς
V. Ἀχαιοί

ἄλγε'

Declension:

Singular

N. ἄλγος
G. ἄλγεος
D. ἄλγεϊ
A. ἄλγος V. ἄλγος

Dual

N. ἄλγεε
G. ἀλγέοιν
D. ἀλγέοιν
A. ἄλγεε
V. ἄλγεε

Plural

N. ἄλγεα
G. ἄλγέων
D. ἀλγέεσσι, ἄλγε(σ)σι
A. ἄλγεα
V. ἄλγεα

ἄλγε' undergoes elision. See note on μυρί'.

ἔθηκε,

Conjugation in indicative active aorist:

Singular

1. ἔθηκα
2. ἔθηκας
3. ἔθηκε

Dual

2. ἐθήκατον
3. ἐθηκάτην

Plural

1. ἐθήκαμεν
2. ἐθήκατε
3. ἔθηκαν

Syntax  9

1.
Μῆνιν

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1011:

The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative case, as νοῦσον ὦρσε he roused a plague, Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν he dishonored Chryses, λυσόμενος θύγατρα to ransom his own daughter, φέρων ἄποινα bearing ransoms, στέμματ’ ἔχων having fillets, ἐλίσσετο Ἀχαιούς he kept entreating the Achaeans.

ἄειδε,

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1106:

The imperative mood expresses a command, or a request; the negative is μή.

θεὰ,

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1022:

The vocative case, with or without ὦ, is used in addressing a person or thing, as θεά goddess! ὦ Ἀχιλεῦ O Achilles! Ἀτρεΐδαι sons of Atreus! NOTE. – The nominative is often used for the vocative, 978,3.

Πηληϊάδεω

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 979:

Some of the most common uses of the genitive are:

1) Posession, as ψυχὰς ἡρώων souls of warriors, Διὸς βουλή the will of Zeus, ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν to the ships of the Achaeans: the possessive genitive.

2) The subject of an action or feeling, as μῆνιν Ἀχιλῆος the wrath of Achilles (i.e. felt by Achilles): the subjective genitive.

3) The object of an action or feeling, as Ἀχιλῆος ποθή a yearning of (i.e. for) Achilles, πόσιος και ἐδητύος ἔρον the desire of (i.e. for) food and drink: the objective genitive.

4) Μaterial or contents, as πυραὶ νεκύων funeral pyres of corpses, ἑκατόμβας ταύρων ἠδ’ αἰγῶν hecatombs of bulls and of goats: genitive of material.

5) Measure of time, space, or value (price), as κούρης Χρυσηίδος ἄποινα δέξασθαι to accept the ransoms for the maiden Chryseϊs: genitive of price.

6) Cause or origin, as εὐχολῆς ἐπιμέμφεται he finds fault on account of a vow (unperformed), χωόμενον γυναικός vexed for the sake of a woman: the genitive of cause.

7) The whole after words denoting the part, as τίς θεῶν which (one) of the gods? τὸ πλεῖον πολέμοιο the greater part of the war : the partitive genitive.

Ἀχιλῆος

See note on Πηλεϊάδεω

2.
οὐλομένην,

See note on Μῆνιν

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 970:

The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case, as ὀλεκοντο δὲ λαοί and the people kept perishing, ἔδεισεν δ' ὁ γέρων and that old man feared.

μυρί'

See note on Μῆνιν

Ἀχαιοῖς

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 995:

The indirect object of a transitive verb is in the dative, as τήν οἱ πόρε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων which Phoebus Apollo granted to him, πῶς τοι δώσουσι γέρας how shall they give you a prize of honor?

ἄλγε'

See note on Μῆνιν

ἔθηκε,

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1080:

The aorist indicative denotes the simple occurence of an action in past time, as ἔλυσα I loosed, did loose.

1.
Μῆνιν

GEL intermediate:

μῆνις, Dor. μᾶνις, ιος, ἡ, (*μάω) wrath, anger, of the gods, Hom., Hdt., Att.

ἄειδε,

GEL intermediate:

ἈΕΊΔΩ, Ion. and poët. Verb (cf. ἀείρω), Att. ᾄδω:—impf. ἤειδον, Ep. ἄειδον, Att. ᾖδον:—fut. ἀείσομαι, Att. ᾄσομαι: rarely in act. form ἀείσω; still more rarely ᾄσω; Dor. ἀσεῦμαι, ἀσῶ:—aor. I ἤεισα, Ep. ἄεισα [ᾰ] imper. ἄεισον, Att. ᾖσα.—Pass., Att. aor. I ᾔσθην, pf. ἦσμαι:—to sing, Il., etc.:—then of any sound, to twang, of the bowstring, Od.; to whistle, of the wind, Mosch.; to ring, of a stone struck, Theocr.

II. trans.,

1. c. acc. rei, to sing, chant, μῆνιν, παιήονα, κλέα ἀνδρῶν Hom.:—absol., ἀείδειν ἀμφί τινος to sing in ones praise, Od.:—Pass., of songs, to be sung, Hdt.; ᾆσμα καλῶς ἀσθέν Xen.

2. c. acc. pers. to sing, praise, Att.

θεὰ,

GEL intermediate:

ΘΕΆ, ἡ, fem. of θεός, a goddess, Hom.; often with another Subst., θεὰ μήτηρ Il.:—τὰ θεά in dual are Demeter and Persephoné (Ceres and Proserpine) Soph.; αἱ σεμναὶ θεαί the Furies, Id.

Πηληϊάδεω

GEL intermediate:

Πηλεύς, ὁ: gen. έως Ep. ῆος: Att. acc. Πηλῆ:—Peleus, son of Aecus, husband of Thetis, father of Achilles, prince of the Myrmidons in Thessaly, Hom.:—Adj. Πήλειος, α, ον, Ep. Πηλήιος, η, ον, of Peleus, Il.—Patron. Πηλείδης, ου, Ep. εω and αο, ὁ, son of Peleus, Ib.; Ep. also Πηληιάδης, Ib.; Aeol. Πηλεΐδας, Pind.:—also Πηλείων, ωνος, ὁ, Il.; Πηλείωνάδε to Peleus‘ son, Ib.

Ἀχιλῆος

GEL intermediate:

Ἀχιλλεύς, gen. Ἀχιλλέως, Ep. ῆος, acc. Ἀχιλλέᾱ, voc. Ἀχιλλεῦ: Ep. nom. also Ἀχιλεύς: (from ἄχος, the grief of the hero being the subject of the Il., cf. Ὀδυσ- σεύς).:—Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, prince of the Myrmidons.

2.
οὐλομένην,

GEL intermediate:

οὐλόμενος, η, ον, Att. ὀλόμενος, aor. 2 med. part. of ὄλλυμι, used as Adj. destructive, baneful, Lat. fatalis, Hom., Hes., etc.

II. unhappy, undone, lost, Lat. perditus, Aesch., Eur.

GEL intermediate:

ὍΣ, ἥ, ὅ, gen. οὗ, ἧς, οὗ, etc.:—Ep. gen. ὅου, ἕης; dat. pl. οἷσι, ᾗς, ἧσι.—Pronoun, which in early Greek was used

A. as a Demonstr. = οὗτος, ὅδε.

B. as a Relat.

A. DEMONSTR., this, that; sometimes also for αὐτός, he, she, it, only in nom.:

I. in Hom., ἀλλὰ καὶ ὃς δείδοικε Il.; ὃ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων Od.

II. in later Greek,

1. at the beginning of a clause, καὶ ὅς and he, καὶ ἥ and she, καὶ οἵ and they, Hdt., Plat.

2. ὃς καὶ ὅς such and such a person, Hdt.

3. ἦ δʼ ὅς, ἦ δʼ ἥ said he, said she, Plat.

4. in oppositions, Λέριοι κακοί οὐχ ὁ μέν, ὃς δʼ οὐ Phocyl.; ὃς μὲν. . , ὁ δὲ. . , Mosch., etc.

B. RELAT., who, which, Lat. qui, quae, quod: properly, the Relat. is governed by the Noun or Verb in its own clause, but it often takes the case of the Anteced. by attraction, τῆς γενεῆς, ἧς Τρωὶ Ζεὺς δῶκε (where the proper case would be ἥν) Il.; οὐδὲν ὧν λέγω (for οὐδὲν τούτων ἃ λέγω) Soph.:—reversely the Anteced. passes into the case of the Relat., τὰς στήλας, ἃς ἵστα, αἱ πλεῦνες (for τῶν στηλῶν, ἃς ἵστα, αἱ πλεῦνες) Hdt.

2. the neut. was used in Att. without an Antecedent, ὃ δὲ δεινότατόν γʼ ἐστὶν ἁπάντων, ὁ Ζεὺς γὰρ ἕστηκεν but what is the strangest thing of all is, that Zeus stands, Ar., etc.

3. in many instances the Gr. Relat. must be resolved into a Conjunction and Pron., ἄτοπα λέγεις, ὅς γε κελεύεις (for ὅτι σύ γε) Xen.; συμφορὰ δʼ, ὃς ἂν τύχῃ κακῆς γυναικός (for ἐάν τις) Eur.:—it is also used, where we should use the Inf., ἄγγελον 2398 ἧκαν, ὃς ἀγγείλειε nuncium miserunt, qui nunciaret, sent a messenger to tell, Od.; πέμψον τινʼ, ὅστις σημανεῖ Eur.

II. the Relat. Pron. joined with Particles or Conjunctions:

1. ὅς γε, v. ὅσγε.

2. ὃς δή, v. δή 1. 5.

3. ὃς καί who also, but καὶ ὅς and who.

4. ὄς κε or κεν, Att. ὃς ἄν, much like ὅστις, Lat. quicunque, whosoever, who if any.

III. absol. usages of certain Cases of the Relat. Pron.:

1. gen. sing. οὗ, of Place, like ὅπου, where, Aesch., Trag., etc.:—ἔστιν οὗ in some places, Eur.; οὐκ εἶδεν οὗ γῆς in what part of the earth, Id.:—in pregnant phrases, μικρὸν προϊόντες, οὗ ἡ μάχη ἐγένετο (for ἐκεῖσε οὗ) having gone on to the place where. . , Xen.

2. ἐξ οὗ (sub. χρόνου) from the time when, Hom., etc.

3. dat. fem. ἧ, Dor. ἇ, of Place, like Lat. qua, where: also with Sup. Adv., ᾗ μάλιστα, ᾗ ῥᾷστα, ῃ ἄριστον, etc., like ὡς μάλιστα, etc., and Lat. quam celerrime, Xen.

4. acc. sing. neut. ὅ for διʼ ὅ or ὅτι, that, how that, also because, Lat. quod, Hom.:— also wherefore, Lat. quapropter, Eur.

μυρί'

GEL intermediate:

ΜῩΡΊΟΣ, α, ον, numberless, countless, infinite, properly of Number, and commonly in pl., Hom.; in sing. with collective Nouns, μυρίον χέραδος Il.; χαλκός Pind.

2. of Size, measureless, immense, infinite, πένθος, ἄχος Il.; μ. κέλευθος an endless journey, Pind.; μ. χρόνος Id.; μυρίη ὄψις all kinds of sights, Hdt., etc.

3. neut. pl. μυρία as Adv., much, immensely, incessantly, κλαίειν Anth.

4. dat. as Adv., μυρίῳ σοφώτερος infinitely wiser, Eur.; μυρίῳ βέλτιον, μ. κάλλιον Plat.

II. as a definite numeral, in pl. μύριοι, αι, α, ten thousand, the greatest number in Greek expressed by one word, Hes., etc.:—in sing. with collective nouns, ῾ίππος μυρίη 10,000 horse, Hdt.; ἀσπὶς μυρία Xen.

Ἀχαιοῖς

GEL intermediate:

Ἀχαιός, ά, όν, Achaian, Lat. Achivus, Hom.:—Ἀχαιοί, οἱ, the Achaians or Greeks generally, Id.:—Ἀχαΐα, ἡ, Achaia in Peloponnese, Thuc.

ἄλγε'

GEL intermediate:

ἌΛΓΟΣ, εος, τό, pain of body, Il., Soph.

2. pain of mind, grief, distress, Hom.

II. anything that causes pain, Bion., Anth.

ἔθηκε,

GEL intermediate:

τίθημι [ῐ], (from Root ΘΕ), τίθης Ep. τίθησθα; τίθησι Dor. τίθητι; 3 pl. τιθέασι, Ion. τιθεῖσι; also 2 and 3 sing. τιθεῖς, τιθεῖ (as if from τιθέω):—Impf. ἐτίθην, ἐτίθης, ἐτίθη, Ep. τίθη; also 2nd and 3rd ἐτίθεις, ἐτίθει, Ep. 3 pl. τίθεσαν, τίθεν, late ἐτίθουν; Ion. impf. ἐτίθεα:—imperat. τίθει:—inf. τιθέναι, Ep. also τιθήμεναι, τιθέμεν:—F. θήσω, Ep. inf. θησέμεναι, θησέμεν:—Aor. ἔθηκα, only in indic.; Ep. 3 pl. θῆκαν:—Aor. 2 ἔθην, not used in indic. sing., pl. ἔθεμεν, ἔθετε, ἔθεσαν Ep. θέσαν; imperat. θές; subj. θῶ, Ion. θέω, Ep. θείω, Ep. 2 and 3 sing. θείῃς, θείῃ, 1 pl. θέωμεν, θείομεν for θείωμεν: opt. θείην, 1 pl. θείημεν and θεῖμεν, 3 pl. θεῖεν: inf. θεῖναι Ep. θέμεναι, θέμεν: part. θείς:—Pf. τέθεικα:—Med. τίθεμαι, 2 sing. τίθεσαι: imperat. τίθεσο, τιθοῦ, Ep. τίθεσσο; Ep. part. τιθήμενος:—F. θήσομαι:—Aor. ἐθηκάμην, only in indic. and partic.; 2 sing. ἐθήκαο, Ep. 3 sing. θήκατο; part. θηκάμενος:—Aor. 2 ἐθέμην; imper. θέο, θοῦ: subj. θῶμαι:opt. θείμην:—Pass. τίθεμαι: F. τεθήσομαι: Aor. ἐτέθην: Pf. τέθειμαι.

A. in local sense, to set, put, place, Hom., etc.:—in Att., πόδα τ. to plant the foot, i.e. walk, run, Aesch.; τετράποδος βάσιν θηρὸς τίθεσθαι, i.e. to go on all fours, Eur.: θεῖναί τινί τι ἐν χερσίν to put it in his hands, Il.; ἐς χεῖρά τινος into his hand, Soph.

2. θέσθαι τὴν ψῆφον to lay ones voting-pebble on the altar, put it into the urn, Aesch.; so, τίθεσθαι τὴν γνώμην to give ones opinion, Hdt.; and τίθεσθαι absol. to vote, Soph.

3. θεῖναί τινί τι ἐν φρεσί, ἐν στήθεσσι to put or plant it in his heart, Hom.; ἐν στήθεσσι τιθεῖ νόον Il., etc.: Med., θέσθαι θυμὸν ἐν στήθεσσι to lay up wrath in ones heart, Ib.; θέσθαι τινὶ κότον to harbour enmity against him, Ib.

4. to deposit, as in a bank, Hdt., Xen.; also, ἐγγύην θέσθαι Aesch.:—Pass., τὰ τεθέντα the deposits, Dem.:—metaph., χάριν or χάριτα θέσθαι τινί to deposit a claim for favour with one, to lay an obligation on one, Hdt., etc.

5. to pay down, pay, Dem.

6. to place to account, put down, reckon, in rationes referre, Id.

7. in military language, τίθεσθαι τὰ ὅπλα has three senses,

a. to pile arms, as in a camp, to bivouac, Thuc.:—hence, to take up a position, draw up in order of battle, Hdt., etc.

b. to lay down ones arms, surrender, Xen.; so, πόλεμον θέσθαι to settle, end it, Thuc.

c. εὖ θέσθαι ὅπλα to keep ones arms in good order, Xen.; like εὖ ἀσπίδα θέσθω, Il.

8. to lay in the grave, bury, Ib., Aesch., etc.

9. τιθέναι τὰ γόνατα to kneel down, N.T.

II. to set up prizes in games, Lat. proponere, Il., etc.:—Pass., τὰ τιθέμενα the prizes, Dem.

2. θεῖναι ἐς μέσον, Lat. in medio ponere, to lay before people, Hdt.; so, τ. εἰς τὸ κοινόν Xen.

3. to set up in a temple, to devote, dedicate, Hom., Eur.

III. to assign, award, τιμήν τινι Il.:—Med., ὄνομα θέσθαι to give a name, Od., Hdt., etc.

IV. τιθέναι νόμον to lay down or give a law, of a legislator, Soph., etc.: Med., of republican legislatures, to give oneself a law, make a law, Hdt., etc.:—so, θεῖναι θεσμόν Aesch.; σκῆψιν θεῖναι to allege an excuse, Soph.

V. to establish, institute, ἀγῶνα Aesch., Xen.

VI. to ordain, command, c. acc. et inf., Xen.; γυναιξὶ σωφρονεῖν θήσει Eur.; so, with Advs., οὕτω νῦν Ζεὺς θείη so may he ordain, Od.; ὣς ἄρʼ ἔμελλον θησέμεναι Il.

B. to put in a certain state, to make so and so, θεῖναί τινα αἰχμητήν, μάντιν Hom.; θεῖναί τινα ἄλοχόν τινος to make her anothers wife, Il.; τοῖόν με ἔθηκε ὅπως ἐθέλει has made me such as she will, Od.; σῦς ἔθηκας ἑταίρους thou didst make my comrades swine, Ib.; ναῦν λᾶαν ἔθηκε Ib.:—so, with an Adj., θεῖναί τινα ἀθάνατον to make him immortal, Ib.; also of things, ὄλεθρον ἀπευθέα θῆκε left it unknown, Ib.:—often in Med., γυναῖκα or ἄκοιτιν θέσθαι τινά to make her ones wife, Od.; παῖδα or υἱὸν τίθεσθαί τινα, like ποιεῖσθαι, to make her ones child, adopt him, Plat.

2. c. inf. to make one do so and so, τιθέναι τινὰ νικῆσαι to make him conquer, Pind., etc.

II. in reference to mental action, mostly in Med., to lay down, assume, hold, reckon or regard as so and so, τί δʼ ἐλέγχεα ταῦτα τίθεσθε; Od.; εὐεργέτημα τ. τι Dem.

2. foll. by Advs., ποῦ χρὴ τίθεσθαι ταῦτα; in what light must we regard these things? Soph.; οὐδαμοῦ τιθέναι τι to hold of no account, nullo in numero habere, Eur.

3. foll. by Preps., τ. τινὰ ἐν τοῖς φίλοις Xen.; τίθεσθαί τινα ἐν τιμῇ Hdt.; θέσθαι παρʼ οὐδέν to set at naught, Aesch., etc.

4. with an infin., οὐ τίθημʼ ἐγὼ ζῆν τοῦτον I hold not that he lives, count him not as living, Soph.

5. to lay down, assume, Plat., etc.

III. to make, work, execute, Lat. ponere, of an artist, ἐν δʼ ἐτίθει νεῖον Il.

2. to make, cause, bring to pass, ἔργα Ib.; ὀρυμαγδόν Od., etc.

3. in Med. to make for oneself, θέσθαι κέλευθον to make onself a road, Il.; μεγάλην ἐπιγουνίδα θέσθαι to get a large thigh, Od.; θέσθαι πόνον to work oneself annoy, Aesch.

4. periphr. for a single Verb. σκέδασιν θεῖναι = σκεδάσαι, to make a scattering, Od.; so in Med., θέσθαι μάχην for μάχεσθαι, Il.; σπουδήν, πρόνοιαν θέσθαι Soph.

IV. εὖ θέσθαι to settle, arrange, or manage well, τὰ σεωυτοῦ Hdt.; τὸ παρόν Thuc.:—also, καλῶς θεῖναι or θέσθαι Soph., Eur.; εὖ θέσθαι Soph.

1.
Μῆνιν
ἄειδε,

Benner Selections:

ἄειδε, for the form see § 41. The Attic present is ᾄδω. Like Latin cano, it admits an object (μῆνιν) in the accusative. Cf. ᾠδάς τινας ᾄδοντες (Xen. Anab. IV, 3, 27).

Very many forms that would be contracted in Attic Greek are found uncontracted in the text of Homer. E. g. 1.1,1.1 Μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος ἄειδε (= Attic ᾆδε). 1.8, 1.8 τίς τ' ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι; ξυν-έηκε (= Attic συν-ῆκε, from συν-ίημι). 1.30, Ἄργεϊ. 1.49, ἀργυρέοιο (= ἀργυροῦ). 1.76, ἐρέω (= ἐρῶ).

θεὰ,

Benner Selections:

θεά, § 66; elsewhere called 'Muse', but Homer applies no more definite name than this to the goddess of epic song.

One frequent feminine noun ends in -ᾱ́: θεά, θεᾶς, Attic ἡ θεός. A few proper names also have nominatives in -ᾱς (masculine) and -ᾱ (feminine); e.g. B 104, Ἑρμείᾱς. Such nouns of course have datives in -ᾳ and accusatives in -ᾱν.

Leaf Iliad:

θεά, the Μοῦσα of Od. 1.1,Od. 1.1 ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰ who tells the poet the history which he has to relate; see 2.484-492,2.484 ἔσπετε νῦν μοι Μοῦσαι Ὀλύμπια δώματ' ἔχουσαι·2.485 ὑμεῖς γὰρ θεαί ἐστε πάρεστέ τε ἴστέ τε πάντα,2.486 ἡμεῖς δὲ κλέος οἶον ἀκούομεν οὐδέ τι ἴδμεν·2.487 οἵ τινες ἡγεμόνες Δαναῶν καὶ κοίρανοι ἦσαν·2.488 πληθὺν δ' οὐκ ἂν ἐγὼ μυθήσομαι οὐδ' ὀνομήνω,2.489 οὐδ' εἴ μοι δέκα μὲν γλῶσσαι, δέκα δὲ στόματ' εἶεν,2.490 φωνὴ δ' ἄρρηκτος, χάλκεον δέ μοι ἦτορ ἐνείη,2.491 εἰ μὴ Ὀλυμπιάδες Μοῦσαι Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο2.492 θυγατέρες μνησαίαθ' ὅσοι ὑπὸ Ἴλιον ἦλθον· and compare Od. 22.347Od. 22.347 αὐτοδίδακτος δ' εἰμί, θεὸς δέ μοι ἐν φρεσὶν οἴμας αὐτοδίδακτος δ' εἰμί, θεὸς δέ μοι ἐν φρεσὶν οἰμας παντοίας ἐνέφυσεν, and Od. 8.44,Od. 8.44 Δημόδοκον· τῷ γάρ ῥα θεὸς πέρι δῶκεν ἀοιδὴν Od. 8.64,Od. 8.64 ὀφθαλμῶν μὲν ἄμερσε, δίδου δ' ἡδεῖαν ἀοιδήν. Od. 8.488Od. 8.488 ἢ σέ γε Μοῦσ' ἐδίδαξε, Διὸς πάϊς, ἢ σέ γ' Ἀπόλλων· ἢ σέ γε Μοῦσ' ἐδίδαξε, Διὸς πάϊς, ἢ σέ γ' Ἀπόλλων.
ExamplesOd. 8.488 cat_group_3: category having 1 entryIl.1.158 cat_group_3: category having several entriesOOOO.1000 Nonexisting categoryIl.25.1000cat_group_3: category without entriesBenner. 60 cat_group_45: category having several entries Pharr. 80 cat_group_45: category having no entries Seymour. 101 cat_group_45: category having one entry Leaf. 7 cat_group_49: category having several entries Benner. 99 cat_group_49: category having no entries Seymour. 303 cat_group_49: category having one entryHymn to Dionysus, 9 dual category having two entries Hymn to Dionysus, 9dual category having two entriesHymn to Demeter, 126dual category having two entries Hymn to Demeter, 368dual category having two entries Hymn to Apollo, 471dual category having one entry Hymn to Aphrodite, 119dual category having one entry

Πηληϊάδεω

Benner Selections:

Πηληϊάδεω, for ending, § 65, § 68; scansion, § 43; composition, § 157.

Endings of the First Declension, Nouns and Adjectives (distinctively Homeric endings in bold type):

Masc. Fem.
Singular: Nom. -ης -η, -α
Gen. -ᾱο, -εω -ης
Dat. -ῃ -ῃ
Acc. -ην -ην, -αν
Voc. -α, η -η, -α
       
Dual, both genders: N. A. V. -ᾱ
G. D.
       
Plural, both genders: N. V. -αι
G. -ᾱ́ων, -έων, -ῶν
D. -ῃσι(ν), -ῃς
A. -ᾱς

The genitive ending -εω, which is always pronounced as one syllable § 43), seems to have been substituted in the text, not uncommonly, for the elided -ᾱ'(ο), which was the earlier ending. E. g. the first line of the Iliad very likely ended originally, Πηληϊάδᾱ' Ἀχιλῆος.

Synizesis. Allied to contraction is Synizesis (Greek συνίζησις, ‘settling together’). This occurs when two neighboring vowels, regularly pronounced separately, must be pronounced as one syllable, to suit the meter. E. g. A 1, -εω (of Πηληιάδεω) must be pronounced as one syllable (but cf. § 68). So too A 15, -έῳ (of χρῡσέῳ). A 18, θεοί. A 131, δὴ οὕτως. A 340, δὴ αὖτε. A 540, δὴ αὖ. For the last three examples the MSS. read, respectively, δ' οὕτως, δ' αὖτε, δ' αὖ, readings which perhaps had better be retained, if δ'=δέ=δή).

Masculine patronymics end in -ιά-δης, -ί-δης, -ά-δης, and -ίων: Πηληιάδης, Πηλεΐδης, Πηλεΐων (Πηλεύς), ‘son of Pe leus’; Θεστορίδης (Θέστωρ), ‘son of Thestor’; Μεγάδης, ‘son of Megas’; Κρονῑ́ων, ‘son of Cronus.’

Leaf Iliad:

Πηληϊάδεω, originally no doubt Πηληϊάδα'(ο). This is one of a class of patronymics formed with a double suffix, the adjectival -ιο- and the purely patronymic -αδη-ς: while the commoner form Πηλε-ίδη-ς has only one. Cf. 2.566.

Ἀχιλῆος

Benner Selections:

Ἀχιλῆος, declension, § 86, § 87.

Singular Plural
N. βασιλεύς (ὁ), ‘king’ βασιλῆες
G. βασιλῆος βασιλήων
D. βασιλῆι βασιλεῦσι(ν)
A. βασιλῆα βασιλῆας
V. [βασιλεῦ]

Similarly are inflected Ἀχιλ(λ)εύς, ‘Achilles,’ ἱερεύς, ‘priest,’ [οὐρεύς], ‘mule,’ etc.

2.
οὐλομένην,

Benner Selections:

οὐλομένην, ‘the baneful wrath’; for spelling, § 34, § 35. Translate as closely as possible in the Greek order, so as to retain the original emphasis; here ‘wrath’ may be repeated.

Initial syllables of words that could not otherwise be introduced into the hexameter are sometimes lengthened by ictus. E.g.

A 265, ἀθανάτοισιν. So too διογενής (Α 489), ἀπονέεσθαι (B 113).
- v v|- - -v v|- - v v|- -

The vowel thus lengthened is often written long in the text. E. g.

A 2, οὐλομένην (Attic ὀλομένην). A 155, βωτιανείρῃ (βόσκω, ‘feed,’ and ἀνήρ). A 252, ἠγαθέῃ (ἀγα-, ‘very’). B 77, ἠμαθόεντος (ἄμαθος, ‘sand’). B 89, εἰαρινοῖσιν (ἔαρ, ‘spring’). B 448, ἠερέθονται (ἀείρω, ‘raise’). B 460, δουλιχοδείρων (δολιχός, ‘long’).

Compare εἰν ἀγορῇ (I 13) for ἐν ἀγορῇ.

Leaf Iliad:

οὐλομένην, accursed; it bears the same relation to the curse ὄλοιο as ὀνήμενος (Od. 2.33) to the blessing ὄναιο, and means ‘that of which we say ὄλοιο.’ It is best regarded as a purely metrical variant of ὀλόμενος, which occurs in the same sense in Trag. (Eur. Hel. 231 , Eur. Phoen. 1029, Eur. Or. 1363, Eur. Herc. 1061); see Schulze Qu. Ep. pp. 192 ff.

μυρί'

Benner Selections:

μυρί᾽, elided vowel, § 40.1; meaning, § 109.

Elision. Final vowels that are superfluous to the meter are elided before words beginning with a vowel, in the following instances, and the elision is marked by an apostrophe:

1. -ᾰ, , -ο, of the various parts of speech. E. g. A 2, μῡρί'(α), ἄλγε'(α) (= Attic ἄλγη). A 23, θ'=τε. A 32, μ'(ε). A 33, ἔφατ'(ο). A 52, βάλλ'(ε) = ἔβαλλε.

μῡρίοι (note the accent), not μύριοι, is found in Homer: ‘countless.’

Leaf Iliad:

μυρία, countless; in its later sense, 10,000, the word is accented μύριοι.

Ἀχαιοῖς

Benner Selections:

Ἀχαιοῖς, originally a tribal name, then used for ‘Greeks’ in general.

ἄλγε'

Benner Selections:

ἄλγε᾽, elision, § 40.1 [see note on μυρί']; declension, § 78, § 91.

Endings of the Third Declension, Nouns and Adjectives (distinctively Homeric endings in bold type):

Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Singular: N. -ς, –
G. -ος -ος
D.
A. -α, -ν
V. -ς, –
       
Dual, all genders: N. A. V.
G. D. -οιιν
       
Plural: N. V. -ες
G. -ων -ων
D. -εσσι(ν), -σι(ν) -εσσι(ν), -σι(ν)
A. -ας, -[ν]ς

ἔπος (τό), ‘word,’ stem ἐπεσ-, is typical of the large number of third declension neuters in -ος:

Singular Plural
N. A. [V.] ἔπος ἔπεα
G. [ἔπεος] ἐπέων
D. ἔπεϊ, ἔπει ἐπέεσσι(ν), ἔπεσσι(ν),ἔπεσι(ν)

Note that final ς of the stem is dropped before endings beginning with a vowel.

The bracketed cases of this word do not actually occur in Homer, but other similarly inflected words may have them.

ἔθηκε,

Benner Selections:

ἔθηκε, ‘made,’ a common Homeric meaning of τίθημι.

Prosody  9

1. Μνιν ειδε, θε, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλος
− v v|− v v|−/ −|−vv| − v v|−−
2. οὐλομένην, μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς λγε' ἔθηκε,
− v v|− −| − v/ v| − −/ − v v|− −
1.
Μῆνιν
ἄειδε,
θεὰ,

Third foot masculine caesura after word θεὰ (on caesura see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1185, § 1186, § 1187).

Whenever a word ends within a foot, it is called caesura. If it coinsides with a pause in the verse, it is called the caesura of the verse. The caesura is employed with great skill in the Homeric poems to make the verse more melodious and to aid in its recital.

There is almost always a caesura in the third foot. It occurs either after the first syllable of the foot, or else between the two short syllables.

The pause after the first syllable is called the masculine caesura, that after the second the feminine.

Πηληϊάδεω

-δεω undergoes synizesis (on synizesis see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 586).

Somewhat akin to contraction is synizesis, which takes place when two successive vowels which do not form a diphtong are pronounced as one syllable for the sake of the meter, as Πηληιάδεω of the son of Peleus, where -δεω must be pronounced as one syllable; θεοὶ δοῖεν may the gods grant, where θεοὶ is also pronounced as one syllable. Or the two syllables forming synizesis may come in separate words, as δὴ οὕτως thus, pronounced as two syllables, or as δὴ αὖ again, pronounced as one syllable.

Ἀχιλῆος
2.
οὐλομένην,
μυρί'

Third foot feminine caesura after word μυρί᾽.

Ἀχαιοῖς

Bucolic diaeresis after word Ἀχαιοῖς (on diaeresis see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1188, § 1189).

Whenever the end of a word coincides with the end of a foot, it is called diaeresis. When this falls with a pause, it is called the diaeresis of the verse.

The most important diaeresis is the one which comes at the end of the fourth foot. From its common employment in pastoral poetry it is called the bucolic diaeresis.

ἄλγε'
ἔθηκε,

Achilles puts on the armour shaped by Hephaestus. Peleus the father of Achilles, Achilles, Thetis the mother of Achilles, his son Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) are represented. Red-figure dish. Clay.

Achilles departing, the Nereid Kymothea holding a phiale and an oinochoe (all named). Detail, side B from an Attic red-figure kantharos. Circa. between 450 and 400 BC. Cabinet des Médailles (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris)

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4. Basic Analysis, Verses 1-2

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