First Book of Homer's Iliad in Classics Unlocked format

Verses 3-5

πολλὰς δ' ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
πολλός,
ή, όν
δέ ἴφθῑμος,
(η), ον
ψυχή,
ῆς, ἡ
Ἄις*,
Ἄιδος,

or
Ἀίδης,
Ἀίδαο,

προ-ϊάπτω,
προ-ϊάψω,
προ-ΐαψα
much,
many,
numerous
and,
but,
for,
so
mighty,
valiant,
stout-hearted,
brave
soul,
life,
spirit,
breath
Hades,
god of the
lower
world
hurl forward,
send forth
adj, fem,
pl, acc
part adj, fem,
pl, acc
noun, fem,
pl, acc
name, masc,
sg, dat
verb, act,
ind, aor,
sg, 3rd
accusative of
direct object
postpos.
particle
accusative of
direct object
accusative of
direct object
dative of
place
aorist of simple
past occurence
no irreduceable constructions
many and valiant souls to Hades hurled
[ἡ] δὲ προΐαψε πολλὰς ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς ἡρώων Ἄϊδι,
and hurled many valiant souls of heroes to Hades,
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
ἥρως,
ωος, ὁ
αὐτός,
ή, ό
δέ ἑλώριον,
ου, τό
τεύχω,
τεύξω,
ἔτευξα,
(τέτυκον),
τέτευχα,
τέτυγμαι,
ἐτύχθην
κύων,
κυνός,
ὁ, ἡ
hero,
mighty warrior,
protector,
savior
self,
him(self),
her(self),
it(self),
same
and,
but,
for,
so
booty,
spoil(s),
prey
do,
make,
perform,
prepare,
fashion,
cause
dog
noun, masc,
pl, gen
pron, masc,
pl, acc
part noun, neut,
pl, acc
verb, act,
ind, imperf,
sg, 3rd
noun,
masc-fem,
pl, dat
genitive of
posse-
ssion
see below
syntax of
construc-
tions
postpos.
particle
see below
syntax of
construc-
tions
imperfect
of past
continued
action
dative of
advan-
tage
Verb with two accusatives:
[ἐ]τεῦχε αὐτοὺς ἑλώρια
of heroes themselves but booty was
making
for the
dogs
[ἡ] δὲ [ἐ]τεῦχε αὐτοὺς ἑλώρια κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι,
and was making themselves a booty for the dogs and for all birds;
οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ' ἐτελείετο βουλή,
οἰωνός,
οῦ, ὁ
τε πᾶς,
πᾶσα,
πᾶν
Ζεύς,
Διός,
δέ τελείω,
(τελέω),
τελέ(σ)(σ)ω,
ἐτέλεσ(σ)α,
τετέλεκα**,
τετέλεσμαι,
ἐτελέσθην
βουλή,
ῆς, ἡ
bird (of prey),
vulture,
omen
and,
also
all,
every,
(the) whole
Zeus,
father
and king
of gods
and men
and,
but,
for,
so
fulfill,
accomplish,
perform,
complete
plan,
will,
wish,
purpose,
counsel,
council
noun, masc,
pl, dat
part adj, masc,
pl, dat
name, masc,
sg, gen
part verb, mid,
ind, imperf,
sg, 3rd
noun, fem,
sg, nom
dative of
advan-
tage
postpos.
particle
dative of
advan-
tage
genitive of
posse-
ssion
postpos.
particle
imperfect
of past
continued
action;
middle
voice
with
passive
sense -
see
dictionary
nomi-
native
of subject
no irreduceable constructions
for birds and for all of Zeus and was being
accomplished
plan
βουλὴ δὲ Διὸς ἐτελείετο
and the plan of Zeus was being accomplished;
3.
πολλὰς

Declension:

Singular

N. πολλή
G. πολλῆς
D. πολλῇ
A. πολλήν
V. πολλή

Dual

(none)

Plural

N. πολλαί
G. πολλάων, πολλέων, πολλῶν
D. πολλῇσι, πολλῇς
A. πολλάς
V. μυρία

δ'
ἰφθίμους

Declension:

Singular

N. ἴφθιμος
G. ἰφθίμου, ἰφθίμοιο, ἰφθίμοο
D. ἰφθίμῳ
A. ἴφθιμον
V. ἴφθιμε

Dual

N. ἰφθίμω
G. ἰφθίμοιιν
D. ἰφθίμοιιν
A. ἰφθίμω
V. ἰφθίμω

Plural

N. ἰφθίμοι
G. ἰφθίμων
D. ἰφθίμοισι, ἰφθίμοις
A. ἰφθίμους
V. ἰφθίμοι

Pharr §723:

Adjectives of the second declension have only two endings (ος, ον), of which the first is both masculine and feminine, the second neuter. Most of these adjectives are compounds.

Pharr §724:

The masculine form of many adjectives is often used for both masculine and feminine, even in the case of those which have separate forms for the feminine.

ψυχὰς

Declension:

Singular

N. ψυχή
G. ψυχῆς
D. ψυχῇ
A. ψυχήν
V. ψυχή

Dual

N. ψυχά
G. ψυχῇιν
D. ψυχῇιν
A. ψυχά
V. ψυχά

Plural

N. ψυχαί
G. ψυχάων
D. ψυχῇσι, ψυχῇς
A. ψυχάς
V. ψυχαί

Ἄϊδι

Declension:

Singular

N. Ἄις*, Ἀίδης
G. Ἄιδος, Ἀίδαο, Ἀίδεω
D. Ἄιδι
A. Ἀίδην
V. Αἴδα**

προΐαψεν

Conjugation in active indicative aorist:

Singular

1. προϊαψα
2. προΐαψας
3. προΐαψε

Dual

2. προϊάψατον
3. προϊαψάτην

Plural

1. προϊάψαμεν
2. προϊάψατε
3. προΐαψαν

4.
ἡρώων,

Declension:

Singular

N. ἥρως
G. ἥρωος
D. ἥρῳ
A. ἥρωα
V. ἥρως

Dual

N. ἥρωε
G. ἡρώοιιν
D. ἡρώοιιν
A. ἥρωε
V. ἥρωε

Plural

N. ἥρωες
G. ἡρώων
D. ἡρώεσι, ἥρωσι
A. ἥρωας
V. ἥρωες

αὐτοὺς

Declension:

Singular

N. αὐτός
G. αὐτοῦ, αὐτοῖο
D. αὐτῷ
A. αὐτόν
V. αὐτέ

Dual

N. αὐτώ
G. αὐτοῖιν
D. αὐτοῖιν
A. αὐτώ

Plural

N. αὐτοί
G. αὐτῶν
D. αὐτοῖσι, αὐτοῖς
A. αὐτούς
V. αὐτοί

δὲ
ἑλώρια

Declension:

Singular

N. ἑλώριον
G. ἑλωρίου
D. ἑλωρίῳ
A. ἑλώριον
V. ἑλώριον

Dual

N. ἑλωρίω
G. ἑλωρίοιιν
D. ἑλωρίοιιν
A. ἑλωρίω
V. ἑλωρίω

Plural

N. ἑλώρια
G. ἑλωρίων
D. ἑλωρίοισι, ἑλωρίοις
A. ἑλώρια
V. ἑλώρια

τεῦχε

Conjugation in active indicative imperfect:

Singular

1. ἔτευχον
2. ἔτευχες
3. ἔτευχε

Dual

2. ἐτεύχετον
3. ἐτευχέτην

Plural

1. ἐτεύχομεν
2. ἐτεύχετε
3. ἔτευχον

κύνεσσιν

Declension:

Singular

N. κύων
G. κυνός
D. κυνί
A. κύνα
V. κύων

Dual

N. κύνε
G. κύνοιιν
D. κύνοιιν
A. κύνε
V. κύνε

Plural

N. κύνες
G. κύνων
D. κύνεσσι
A. κύνε
V. κύνες

5.
οἰωνοῖσί

Declension:

Singular

N. οἰωνός
G. οἰωνοῦ
D. οἰωνῷ
A. οἰωνόν
V. οἰωνέ

Dual

N. οἰωνώ
G. οἰωνοῖιν
D. οἰωνοῖιν
A. οἰωνώ
V. οἰωνώ

Plural

N. οἰωνοί
G. οἰώνων
D. οἰωνοῖσι, οἰωνοῖς
A. οἰωνούς
V. οἰωνοί

τε
πᾶσι,

Declension:

Singular

N. πᾶς
G. παντός
D. παντί
A. πάντα
V. πᾶς

Dual

(none)

Plural

N. πάντες
G. πάντων
D. πάντε(σ)σι, πᾶσι
A. πάντας
V. πάντες

Διὸς

Declension:

Singular

N. Ζεύς,
G. Διός, Ζηνός
D. Διΐ, Ζηνί
A. Δία, Ζῆνα
V. Ζεῦ

δ'
ἐτελείετο

Conjugation in middle indicative imperfect:

Singular

1. ἐτελειόμην
2. ἐτελείεo
3. ἐτελείετο

Dual

2. ἐτελείεσθον
3. ἐτελειέσθην

Plural

1. ἐτελειόμε(σ)θα
2. ἐτελείεσθε
3. ἐτελείοντο

βουλή,

Declension:

Singular

N. βουλή
G. βουλῆς
D. βουλῇ
A. βουλήν
V. βουλή

Dual

N. βουλά
G. βουλῇιν
D. βουλῇιν
A. βουλά
V. βουλά

Plural

N. βουλαί
G. βουλάων
D. βουλῇσι, βουλῇς
A. βουλάς
V. βουλαί

Syntax  6

3.
πολλὰς

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1011:

The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative case, as νοῦσον ὦρσε he roused a plague, Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν he dishonored Chryses, λυσόμενος θύγατρα to ransom his own daughter, φέρων ἄποινα bearing ransoms, στέμματ’ ἔχων having fillets, ἐλίσσετο Ἀχαιούς he kept entreating the Achaeans.

δ'

Monro H. G. § 333:

The chief use of the Adversative Particle δέ is to show that a Clause stands in some contrast to what has preceded. Ordinarily, however, it merely indicates the continuation of a narrative (i.e. shows that the new fact is not simultaneous). It is especially used to introduce a parenthesis or subordinate statement (whereas τε introduces something parallel or coordinate): e.g.

νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὦρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,

οὕνεκα κτλ.

Here a prose writer would say ὀλεθρίαν, or ὥστε ἀπόλλυσθαι τὸν λαόν, or ὑφ' ἧς ὁ λαὸς ἀπώλλυτο, &c. So—

Ἀντίλοχος δὲ Μύδωνα βάλ', ἡνίοχον Θεράποντα,

ἐστλὸν Ἀτυμνιάδην, ὁ δ' ὑπέστρεφε μώνυχας ἵππους,

χερμαδίῳ ἀγκῶνα τυχὼν μέσον.

I.e. ‘struck him as he was turning the horses.’

δέ is nearly always the second word in the Clause. It is occasionally put after (1) a Preposition and Case-form, as ἐπ' αὐτῶν δ' ὠμοθέτησαν, or (2) an Article and Numeral, as τῇ δεκάτῃ δ' κτλ.: but not after other combinations. Hence καὶ δέ, as Il.7.113 καὶ δ' Ἀχιλεύς and even Achilles (never καὶ Ἀχιλεὺς δέ, as in later Greek).

ἰφθίμους

See note on πολλὰς

ψυχὰς

See note on πολλὰς

Ἄϊδι

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1009:

The dative with or without a preposition is used to denote the place where an action takes place. It is used of towns and countries, the great divisions of the world, the chief spheres of action, of the parts of a thing, or of the human body, after some verbs that imply locality or time, and after some verbs of motion where we should expect the accusative with a preposition, as οὐχ ἥνδανε θῡμῷ it was not pleasing in his soul, τόξ' ὤμοισιν ἔχων having his bow on his shoulders, τοῖσι δ' ἀνέστη Κάλχας and Calchas arose among them, μὴ κλέπτε νόῳ do not play the thief in your heart, ἄμφω θῡμῷ φιλέουσα loving both (of them) in her heart, φρεσὶ θύει he rages in his mind, ἥμενον κορυφῇ seated upon the summit, μάχῇ Τρώεσσιν ἀρήγειν to assist the Trojans in the battle, δεκάτῃ δ' ἀγορήνδε καλέσσατο λᾱὸν Ἀχιλλεύς but on the tenth (day) Achilles summoned the people to an assembly, δωδεκάτῃ δ' ἐλεύσεται Οὔλυμπόνδε but on the twelfth (day) he will come to Olympus, πολλὰς δὲ ψυχὰς Ἄιδι προΐαψεν and sent many souls to Hades, σὺ δ' ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν and do you place it in your heart, ἄγουσι δὲ δῶρα ἄνακτι and they are taking presents to the lord, κάππεσον ἐν Λήμνῳ I fell into Lemnos.

προΐαψεν

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1080:

The aorist indicative denotes the simple occurence of an action in past time, as ἔλυσα I loosed, did loose

4.
ἡρώων,

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 979:

Some of the most common uses of the genitive are:

1) Posession, as ψυχὰς ἡρώων souls of warriors, Διὸς βουλή the will of Zeus, ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν to the ships of the Achaeans: the possessive genitive.

2) The subject of an action or feeling, as μῆνιν Ἀχιλῆος the wrath of Achilles (i.e. felt by Achilles): the subjective genitive.

3) The object of an action or feeling, as Ἀχιλῆος ποθή a yearning of (i.e. for) Achilles, πόσιος και ἐδητύος ἔρον the desire of (i.e. for) food and drink: the objective genitive.

4) Μaterial or contents, as πυραὶ νεκύων funeral pyres of corpses, ἑκατόμβας ταύρων ἠδ’ αἰγῶν hecatombs of bulls and of goats: genitive of material.

5) Measure of time, space, or value (price), as κούρης Χρυσηίδος ἄποινα δέξασθαι to accept the ransoms for the maiden Chryseϊs: genitive of price.

6) Cause or origin, as εὐχολῆς ἐπιμέμφεται he finds fault on account of a vow (unperformed), χωόμενον γυναικός vexed for the sake of a woman: the genitive of cause.

7) The whole after words denoting the part, as τίς θεῶν which (one) of the gods? τὸ πλεῖον πολέμοιο the greater part of the war : the partitive genitive.

αὐτοὺς

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1020:

The following classes of verbs may be construed with two accusatives:

1) Verbs of asking, teaching, reminding, demanding, clothing, unclothing, depriving, and taking away, as ἔμ' ἀφαιρεῖται Χρῡσηίδα Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων Phoebus Apollo is depriving me of Chryseïs, μήτε σὺ τόνδ' ἀποαίρεο κούρην nor do you deprive him of the maiden.

2) Verbs of naming, choosing, appointing, making, thinking, regarding, and the like, as αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε δαῖτα and made themselves a booty for the dogs and a banqet for the birds, ὅν Βριάρεων καλέουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δὲ τε πάντες Αἰγαίωνα whom the gods call Briareüs, but all men (call) Aegaeon.

3) Verbs meaning to do anything to or say anything of a person.

δὲ

See above

ἑλώρια

See note on αὐτοὺς

τεῦχε

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1079:

The imperfect denotes the continuance of action in past time, customary or repeated action, as ἔλυον, I loosed, was loosing, kept loosing, was accustomed to loose.

κύνεσσιν

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 997:

A person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage a thing exists or is done is put in the dative, as αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσι τε δαῖτα and it made themselves a booty for the dogs and a banquet for the birds, παῖδα δ' ἐμοὶ λῦσαι but free for me my child, τόδε μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ accomplish for me this desire, ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι to ward off destruction for (from) us, καὶ δή μοι γέρας αὐτὸς ἀφαιρήσεσθαι ἀπειλεῖς and you threaten to take away for (from) me my prize of honor, Ἀχιλλῆι μεθέμεν χόλον to forego (your) anger for Achilles, σὺν δ' ἡμῖν δαῖτα ταράξῃ and he should throw banquet into confusion for us.

5.
οἰωνοῖσί

See note on κύνεσσιν

τε

Monro H. G. § 331:

The enclitic τε has two main uses which it is essential to distinguish ; besides one or two special uses of less importance.

(a) As a Conjunction τε connects clauses and single words. It is especially used when a new fact or new object is to take its place pari passu with what has been already said : κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι to dogs and birds as well: αἵ πᾶσι κακὸν Τρώεσσι γένοντο οἶ τ' αὐτῷ which were a bane to all the Trojans, and to himself (equally). This meaning is given still more distinctly by the Correlative τε—τε : thus we have the pairs ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε, δῆμος τε πόλις τε, κλαγγῇ τ' ἐνοπῇ τε, &c. and the pairs of Clauses expressing simultaneous action, such as—

ἄψ τ' ἀνεχορησεν, ὦχρός τέ μιν εἷλε παρειάς.

Hence τε—τε sometimes marks that two things are mutually dependent : ὀλίγον τε φίλον τε=‘not less dear because small,’ λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ' ἀπερείσι' ἄποινα=‘bringing vast ransom for the deliverance of his daughter’ : Il.5.359 κόμισαί τέ με δός τέ μοι ἵππους.

The combinations τε—καί and τε—ἠδέ (or ἰδέ) are also common in Homer, and not sensibly different in meaning from τε—τε : as—

ὤμωξέν τ' ἄρ ἔπειτα καί ὥ πεπλήγετο μηρώ.

χλαῖνάν τ' ἠδὲ χιτῶνα.

As to the place of τε the general rule is that it follows the first word in the Clause. Hence when standing first in the pair τε—τε it does not always follow the word which it couples : e.g. Il.6.317 ἐγγύθι τε Πριάμοιο και Ἕκτορος near both Priam and Hector ; Il.5.878 σοί τ' ἐπιπείθονται καὶ δεδμήμεσθα ἕκασττος (cp. 2.136, 198., 4.505., 7.294-5).

The use of τε as a particle of transition (to begin a fresh sentence after a pause) is not Homeric, though common in later Greek. This may indicate that the use as a connecting Particle was originally confined to the Correlative τε—τε (Delbrück, Synt. Forsch. iv. p. 145).

πᾶσι,

See note on κύνεσσιν

Διὸς

See note on ἡρώων

δ'

See above

ἐτελείετο

See note on τεῦχε

βουλή,

Pharr Hom. Gr. § 970:

The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case, as ὀλεκοντο δὲ λαοί and the people kept perishing, ἔδεισεν δ' ὁ γέρων and that old man feared.

3.
πολλὰς

GEL intermediate:

ΠΟΛΎΣ, πολλή, πολύ: gen. πολλοῦ, ῆς, οῦ: dat. πολλῷ, ῇ, ῷ: acc. πολύν, πολλήν, πολύ:—Ion. nom. πολλός, ή, όν, acc. πολλόν, ήν, όν, this Ion. declension being retained by the Att. in all cases, except the nom. and acc. masc. and neut. Hom. uses both Ion. and Att. forms. Special Ep. forms: πουλύς, ύ, gen. πολέος, pl. nom. πολέες, πολεῖς, gen. πολέων, dat. πολέσι, πολέσσι, πολέεσσι, acc. πολέας.

I. of Number, many, opp. to ὀλίγος, Hom., etc. ;– with nouns of multitude, πουλὺς ὅμιλος Od.; πολλὸν πλῆθος Hdt., etc.:—also of anything often repeated, πολλὸν ἦν τοῦτο τὸ ἔπος Id.; πολλὸς αἰνεόμενος Id.; τούτῳ πολλῷ χρήσεται τῷ λόγῳ often, Dem.

2. of Size, Degree, Force, much, mighty, great, Il., etc.; π. ὕπνος deep sleep, Od.; π. ὑμέναιος a loud song, Il., etc.:—rarely of a single person, μέγας καὶ πολλὸς ἐγένεο Hdt.; ἢν πολλῇ ῥυῇ if she flow with full stream, metaph. from a river, Eur.; πολλῷ ῥέοντι Dem.; from the wind, πολὺς ἔπνει was blowing strong, Id.; often with a Partic., πολλὸς ἦν λισσόμενος he was all intreaties, Lat. multus erat in precando, Hdt.; so, π. ἦν ἐν τοῖσι λόγοισι Id., etc.

3. of Value or Worth, πολέος or πολλοῦ ἄξιος Hom.; πολλοῦ and περὶ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαί τι, Lat. magni facere, cf. περί A.IV; ἐπὶ πολλῷ at a high price, Dem.

4. of Space, large, wide, wide-stretched, π. χώρη, πεδίον Il., Hes., etc.; πόντος, πέλαγος Hes., etc.;—πολλὸς ἔκειτο he lay outstretched, Il.;—π. κέλευθος a far way, Aesch., etc.

5. of Time, long, πολὺν χρόνον Hom., etc.; πολλοῦ χρόνου Ar.; ἐκ πολλοῦ Thuc.; ἔτι πολλῆς νυκτός, Lat. multa nocte, while still quite night, Id.

II. Special usages:

1. partitive c. gen., e.g. πολλοὶ Τρώων for πολλοὶ Τρῶες, Il.; πολλὸν σαρκός for πολλὴ σάρξ, Od.; in Prose, the Adj. generally takes the gender of the gen., τῆς γῆς οὐ πολλήν Thuc.

2. joined to another Adj. by καί, πολέες τε καὶ ἐσθλοί many men and good, Il.; π. καὶ πονηπά Xen.; μεγάλα καὶ π. Dem.

3. with the Art., of persons or things well known, Ἑλένα μία τὰς πολλὰς ψυχὰς ὀλέσασʼ those many lives, Aesch.; ὡς ὁ πολλὸς λόγος the common report, Hdt.:—esp. οἱ πολλοί the many, i.e. the greater number, Thuc.; hence, like τὸ πλῆθος, the people, the commonalty, Id.; εἷς τῶν πολλῶν one of the multitude, Dem.

b. τὺ πολύ, c. gen., τῆς στρατιῆς τὸ πολλόν Hdt.; τῶν λογάδων τὸ πολύ Thuc.; but also, ὁ στρατὸς ὁ πολλός Hdt.

c. τὰ πολλά the most, Od., etc.

4. the pl. πολλά is used with Verbs in the sense of very much, too much, πολλὰ πράσσειν = πολυπραγμονεῖν, Eur., Ar.; π. ἔρξαι τινά to do one much harm, Aesch.

5. πολλάς with Verbs of beating, the Subst. πληγάς being omitted, v. πληγή 1.

III. Adverbial usages:

a. neut. πολύ (Ion. πολλόν), πολλά, much, very, Hom., etc.; μάλα πολλά Ib.; πάνυ πολύ Plat.:—also of repetition, many times, ofttimes, often, much, Hom., etc.:—also with the Art., τὸ πολύ for the most part, Plat.; ὡς τὸ π. Xen.; so, τὰ πολλά, ὡς τὰ π. Thuc.

b. of Degree, far, very much, Hdt.; so absol. gen. πολλοῦ, very, θρασὺς εἶ πολλοῦ Ar.; πολλοῦ πολύς, πολλοῦ πολλή, πολλοῦ πολύ, much too much, Id.

c. of Space, a great way, far, οὐ πολλόν Hdt., etc.

d. of Time, long, Id.

2. πολύ is often joined with Adjs. and Advs.,

a. with a Compar. to increase its compar. force, πολὺ κάλλιον, μεῖζον, πολλὸν ἀμείνων, παυρότεροι much, far more beautiful, etc., Hom., etc.:—so dat. πολλῷ by far, Hdt., etc.

b. with a Sup., πολὺ πρῶτος, πολλὸν ἄριστος far the first, etc., Il., etc.:—also, πολλῷ πλεῖστοι Hdt.

c. in Att. with a Positive, ὦ πολλὰ μὲν τάλαινα, πολλὰ δʼ αὖ σοφή Aesch.

IV. with Preps.,

1. διὰ πολλοῦ at a great distance, V. διά A. 11. 2.

2. ἐκ πολλοῦ from a great distance, Thuc.; for a long time, v. ἐκ II. 1.

3. ἐπὶ πολύ,

a. over a great space, far, οὐκ ἐπὶ πολλόν Hdt.

b. for a long time, long, Thuc.

c. to a great extent, Plat.; so, ὡς ἐπὶ π. very generally, Thuc.; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ π. for the most part, Id.

4. παρὰ πολύ, by far, v. παρά c. 1. 5.

5. περὶ πολλοῦ, v. supr. 1. 3.

V. for Comp. πλείων, πλέων; Sup. πλεῖστος, v. sub vocc.

δ'

GEL intermediate:

ΔΈ, but: conjunctive Particle, with adversative force: it commonly answers to μέν, and may often be rendered by while, whereas, on the other hand, v. μέν:—but μέν is often omitted, δέ being used merely to pass on from one thing to another; ὣς Ἀχιλεὺς θάμβησεν, θάμβησαν δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι Il.; etc.; κινεῖ κραδίην κινεῖ δὲ χόλον Eur.

II. δέ is often redundant,

1. to introduce the apodosis, where it may be rendered by then, yet, εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώωσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι if they will not give it, then I will take it, Il.; so at in Lat., si tu oblitus es, at Dii meminerint Catull.

2. to resume after interruption caused by a parenthesis, where it may be rendered by I say, now, so then, Hdt.

B. POSITION of δέ: properly second, being often put between the Art. and Subst., the Prep. and case.

ἰφθίμους

GEL intermediate:

ἴφθῑμος, η, ον, or ος, ον, (ἶφι, ἴφιος) stout, strong, stalwart, Il.:—of women, comely, goodly, Hom.

ψυχὰς

GEL intermediate:

ψῡχή, ἡ, (ψύχω) breath, Lat. anima, esp. as the sign of life, the life, spirit, Hom., etc.; ψυχή τε μένος τε ψυχή τε καὶ αἰών, ψυχὴ καὶ θυμός Hom.; τὸν δʼ ἔλιπε ψυχή, of one swooning, Il.; ψυχὴν παρθέμενος staking or risking ones life, Od.; so, ἐμὴν ψυχὴν παραβαλλόμενος Il.; περὶ ψυχῆς for ones life, i.e. to save it, Od.; μάχεσθαι, θέειν περὶ ψυχῆς Hom.; τρέχειν περὶ ψυχῆς Hdt.; ὁ περὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀγών the struggle is for life and death, Soph.; ποινὴν τῆς Αἰσώπου ψυχῆς ἀνελέσθαι to take revenge for the life of Aesop, Hdt.; ψυχὴν ἀφιέναι to give up the ghost, Eur.

2. metaph. of things dear as life, χρήματα γὰρ ψυχὴ βροτοῖσι Hes.; πᾶσι δʼ ἀνθρώποις ψυχὴ τέκνʼ [ἐστί] Eur.

II. the departed soul, spirit, ghost, Hom.

2. the soul or spirit of man, Lat. anima, opp. to σῶμα, Plat., Xen.:—ψυχή τινος, periphr. for the man himself, Soph.; also ψυχαί, souls, = ἄνθρωποι, Aesch., Ar.:—hence in addressing persons, ὦ μελέα ψυχή Soph.; ὦ ἀγαθὴ καὶ πιστὴ ψ. Xen.; πᾶσα ψυχὴ ὑποτασσέσθω let every soul be subject, N.T.

3. the soul, heart, ψυχὴν ἄριστε Ar.; ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς with all the heart, Xen.

4. appetite, δοῦναί τι τῇ ψυχῇ, like Lat. indulgere animo, Aesch.

III. the soul, mind, understanding, ψυχὴν οὐκ ἄκρος Hdt.

Ἄϊδι

GEL intermediate:

ἅδης or Ἅιδης, ου, ὁ; in Hom. also Ἀΐδης, αο, and εω; Dor. Ἀΐδας, α: there is also a gen. Ἄϊδος, dat. Ἄϊδι (as if from Ἄϊς): (from α privat., ἰδεῖν:—Hades or Pluto (cf. Πλούτων), the god of the nether world, son of Kronus and Rhea, brother to Zeus, Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἄιδης Il.; called Ζεὺς καταχθόνιος Ib.; εἰν or εἰσʼ Αΐδαο (sc. δόμοις, δόμους) in, into the nether world, Hom.; εἰν Ἄϊδος Il.; ἐν Ἅιδου, ἐς Ἅιδου (sc. οἴκῳ, οἶκον) Att.;—also Ἄϊδόσδε Adv., Il.

II. as appellative, Hades, the world below, εἰσόκεν ἄϊδι κεύθωμαι Ib.; ἐπὶ τὸν ᾅδην Luc.; εἰς ἀΐδην Anth.; ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ N.T.

2. the grave, death, ᾅδης πόντιος death by sea, Aesch., etc. [ᾰῐδης in Hom., Att. ᾱͅδης; but in Trag. also ᾱῐδας:—gen. ᾰῐδεω as an anapaest in Hom.; gen. ᾰῐδᾱο Id.; gen. ᾱῐδος before a vowel, Il.]

προΐαψεν

GEL intermediate:

προ-ϊάπτω, f. ψω: aor. I -ίαψα:—to send forward, to send untimely to the nether world, Il., Aesch.

4.
ἡρώων,

GEL intermediate:

ἭΡΩΣ, ὁ, gen. ἥρωος, Att. also ἥρω: dat. ἥρωϊ, ἥρῳ: acc. ἥρωα, ἥρω, rarely ἥρων:— Plur., nom. ἥρωες, rarely ἥρως, dat. ἥρωσιν: acc. ἥρωας, rarely ἥρως:—(akin to Lat. vir), a hero, in Hom. used of the Greeks before Troy, then of warriors generally; and then of all free men of the heroic age, as the minstrel Demodocus, the herald Mulius, even the unwarlike Phaeacians.

2. in Hes. the Blessed Heroes are the Fourth Age of men, who fell before Thebes and Troy, and then passed to the Islands of the Blest.

3. heroes, as objects of worship, demigods or men born from a god and a mortal, as Hercules, Aeneas, Memnon, Hdt., Pind.; then of such as had done great services to mankind, as Daedalus, Triptolemus, Theseus, Anth.

4. later, the heroes are inferior local deities, patrons of tribes, cities, guilds, founders of cities, etc.; as at Athens, the ἥρωες ἐπώνυμοι were the heroes after whom the φυλαί were named, Hdt.

αὐτοὺς

GEL intermediate:

Α᾽ΥΤΌΣ, αὐτή, αὐτό, reflexive Pron., self, Lat. ipse:—in the oblique cases simply for the personal Pron., him, her, it:—with the Artic. ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό (or ταὐτόν), etc., the very one, the same.

I. self, myself, thyself, etc., acc. to the person of the Verb., Hom., etc.:

1. oneself, ones true self, the soul, not the body, Od.; or opp. to others, as king to subjects, parent to children, man to wife, etc., Hom.; hence absol. for the Master, τίς οὗτος;—Αὐτός, i.e. Socrates, Ar.; similarly in neut. αὐτὸ δείξει the result will shew, Eur.

2. of oneself, of ones own accord, Lat. sponte, Hom., Soph.

3. by oneself, alone, αὐτός περ ἐών although alone, Il.; αὐτοί ἐσμεν we are by ourselves, i.e. among friends, Ar.

4. in Plat., τὸ δίκαιον αὐτό right in itself, the idea of right, etc.; cf. αὐτοάνθρωπος.

5. in dat. with Subst., together with, ἀνόρουσεν αὐτῇ σὺν φόρμιγγι he sprang up lyre in hand, Il.; αὐτῇ σὺν πήληκι helmet and all, Ib.; and without σύν, αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσι men and all, Hdt., etc.

6. added to ordinal Numbers, e.g. πέμπτος αὐτός himself the fifth, i.e. himself with four others, Thuc.

7. in connexion with the person. Pron., ἐγὼ αὐτός, ἐμέθεν αὐτῆς, σὲ αὐτόν, etc., Hom.; in Hdt. and Att. it coalesces with oblique cases of Pron., ἐμαυτοῦ, σε-αυτοῦ, ἑ- αυτοῦ:—it is joined with these reflexive Pronouns to add force, αὐτὸς καθʼ αὑτοῦ, αὐτοὶ ὑφʼ αὑτῶν Aesch., etc.

8. gen. αὐτοῦ is used with the possessive Pron., πατρὸς κλέος ἠδʼ ἐμὸν αὐτοῦ Il.

9. αὐτὸς ἑαυτοῦ is also used with Comp. and Sup. Adj. to express something unusual, αὐτὸς ἑωυτοῦ πολλῷ ὑποδεέστερος Hdt.

II. he, she, it, for the simple Pron. of 3 person, only in oblique cases, and never at the beginning of a sentence, Hom., Att.: cf. ἑαυτοῦ.

III. with Article ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό, and Att. contr. αὑτός, αὑτή, ταὐτό and ταὐτόν, gen. ταὐτοῦ, dat. ταὐτῷ, pl. neut. ταὐτά: Ion. ὡὐτός, τὠυτό:—the very one, the same, Lat. idem, Hom., Hdt., Att.:—it freq. takes a dat., like ὅμοιος, to denote sameness, τὠυτὸ ἂν ὑμῖν ἐπρήσσομεν we should fare the same as you, Hdt.; also, ὁ αὐτὸς καί, cf. Lat. simul ac, Id.

IV. αὐτο- in Compos.:

1. of itself, i.e. natural, native, not made, as in αὐτόκτιτος.

2. of mere. . , of nothing but. . , as in αὐτόξυλος.

3. of oneself, self-, as in αὐτοδίδακτος, αὐτόματος: and so independently, as in αὐτόνομος.

4. just, exactly, as in αὐτόδεκα.

5. with reflex. sense of αὑτοῦ and ἀλλήλων, as αὐθέντης, αὐτοκτονέω.

6. together with, as in αὐτόπρεμνος, αὐτόρριζος.

δὲ

See above

ἑλώρια

GEL intermediate:

ἕλωρ, τό, only in nom. and acc. sing. and pl.: (ἑλεῖν):—booty, spoil, prey, of unburied corpses, Hom.

II. in pl., Πατρόκλοιο ἕλωρα penalty for the slaughter of Patroclus, Il.

ἑλώριον, τό, = foreg., Il.

τεῦχε

GEL intermediate:

ΤΕΎΧΩ, f. τεύξω: aor. I ἔτευξα, Ep. τεῦξα: pf. τέτευχα: Ep. redupl. aor. τετῠκεῖν:— Med., f. τεύξομαι: Ep. redupl. aor. 2 inf. τετῠκέσθαι:—Pass., 3 f. τετεύξομαι: aor. I ἐτύχθην: pf. τέτυγμαι, plqpf. ἐτετύγμην, Ep. 3 pl. τετεύχαται, ἐτετεύχατο, τετεύχατο. To make ready, make, build, work, Hom., Hes., Trag.;—of a cook, δεῖπνον τετυκεῖν to dress or prepare a meal, Od.; and in Med., δεῖπνον τετυκέσθαι to have a meal prepared, Hom.:—Pass., δώματα τετεύχαται Il.; θεῶν ἐτετεύχατο βωμοί Ib.; c. gen., χρυσοῖο τετεύχαται are wrought of gold, Ib.; also, τετυγμένα δώματα λάεσσιν built with stones, Od.; but, δόμος αἰθούσῃσι τετυγμένος built or furnished with vestibules, Il.

2. the pf. part. τετυγμένος often passes into the sense of an Adj., = τυκτός, well-made, well-wrought, Hom.; ἀγρὸς καλὸν τετ. well wrought, well tilled, Od.;—metaph., νόος τετυγμένος a ready, constant mind, Ib.

3. pf. act. part. once in pass. sense, ῥινοῖο τετευχώς made of hide, Ib.

II. of events, to cause, make, bring to pass, bring about, ὄμβρον ἠὲ χάλαζαν Il.; τ. βοήν to make a cry, Od.; τ. γάμον to bring it about, Ib.:—Pass., esp. in pf., to be caused, and so to arise, occur, happen, exist, Hom., etc.

III. c. acc. pers. to make so and so, ἄγνωστον τ. τινά Od.; τ. τινὰ μέγαν, εὐδαίμονα Aesch., Eur.; c. dupl. acc., τί σε τεύξω; what shall I make of thee? Soph.;— hence in pf. pass. simply for γίγνεσθαι or εἶναι, Ζεὺς ταμίης πολέμοιο τέτυκται Il.; γυναικὸς ἄφʼ ἀντὶ τέτυξο thou wast like a woman, Ib.

κύνεσσιν

GEL intermediate:

ΚΎΩΝ, ὁ and ἡ, gen. κῠνός, dat. κῠνί, acc. κύνα, voc. κύον:—pl., nom. κύνες, gen. κυνῶν, dat. κυσί, Ep. κύνεσσι, acc. κύνας:—a dog or bitch, Hom., etc.; most commonly of hounds, Id., etc.; the Laconian breed was famous, Soph.;—νή or μὰ τὸν κύνα was the favourite oath of Socrates, Plat.: cf. τραπεζεύς.

II. as a word of reproach, to denote shamelessness or audacity in women, rashness, recklessness in men, Hom.

2. at Athens a nickname of the Cynics, Arist., Anth.

III. the Trag. apply the term to the ministers of the gods; the eagle is Διὸς πτηνὸς κύων Aesch.; the griffins Ζηνὸς ἀκραγεῖς κύνες Id.; the Bacchantes Λύσσης κ. Eur., etc.

IV. a sea-dog, mentioned as a fish in Od.

V. the dog-star, i.e. the dog of Orion, placed among the stars with its master, Il.

5.
οἰωνοῖσί

GEL intermediate:

οἰωνός, ὁ, (v. sub fin.):—a large bird, bird of prey, such as a vulture or eagle, and so distinguished from a common bird (ὄρνις), Hom., etc.

II. a bird of omen or augury, Hom., etc.:—the flight to (not from) the right, i.e. towards the East, was fortunate, and vice versa.

2. an omen, presage, drawn from these birds, Lat. auspicium or augurium, according as taken from seeing their flight or hearing their cry, Il., etc.; δέκομαι τὸν οἰωνόν I accept the omen, hail it as favourable, Hdt. (commonly deriv. from οἶος, - most birds of prey being solitary,—cf. κοινωνός from κοινός).

τε

GEL intermediate:

τε, enclitic Particle, and, answering to Lat. que, as καί to et. It may simply join clauses, as ὃς Χρύσην ἀμφιβέβηκας Κίλλαν τε ζαθέην, Τενέδοιό τε ἶφι ἀνάσσεις Il.; or it may be repeated as τε. . τε. . , both. . and. . , as πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Hom. So also τε. . , καὶ. . , as διαστήτην Ἀτρείδης τε καὶ δῖοσʼΑχιλλεύς Il., etc.:—used to show coincidence of Time, μεσαμβρίη τέ ἐστι καὶ τὸ κάρτα γίγνεται ψυχρόν Hdt., etc.

2. the combination καί τε is peculiar to Ep., and also, Hom.

II. in Ep. Poetry, τε is attached to many relative Pronouns or Particles, without altering their sense, as ὅστε, ὅσος τε, γάρ τε, δέ τε, μέν τε, ἔνθα τε, ἵνα τε, etc.: in Att., this τε was dropped, except in a few words, as ἅτε, ὥστε, ἐφʼ ᾧτε, οἷός τε, ἔστε.

πᾶσι,

GEL intermediate:

Π῀ΑΣ, πᾶσα, πᾶν: gen. παντός, πάσης, παντός: gen. pl. masc. and neut. πάντων, fem. πασῶν, Ion. πᾱσέων, Ep. πᾱσάων [σᾱ]: dat. pl. masc. and neut. πᾶσι, Ep. πάντεσσι:— Lat. omnis, all, when used of many; when of one only, all, the whole:

I. in pl. all, πάντες τε θεοὶ πᾶσαί τε θέαιναι Il.; τῶν Σαμίων πάντες Thuc.; ἅμα πάντες, πάντες ἅμα all together, Il., etc.

2. with a Sup., πάντες ἄριστοι all the noblest, Lat. optimus quisque, Hom.

II. all, the whole, πᾶσα ἀλήθεια all the truth, Il.; χαλκέη πᾶσα all of bronze, Hdt.; ἦν ἡ μάχη ἐν χερσὶ πᾶσα all hand to hand, Thuc.; ἡ πᾶσα βλάβη nothing but mischief, Soph.

III. = ἕκαστος, every, Hom., etc.; πᾶς χώρει let everyone go, Ar.:—also, πᾶς ἀνήρ Soph., etc.; πᾶς τις every single one, Hdt., etc.; πᾶς ὅστις. . Soph.; πᾶν ὅσον Aesch., etc.

B. When the Art. is used, it is generally put after πᾶς, πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν all his force, Hdt.; πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν Thuc.

II. πᾶς is put between the Art. and Subst., to denote totality, ὁ πᾶς ἀριθμός Aesch.; τὸ πᾶν πλῆθος Thuc.

III. as a Subst., τὸ πᾶν the whole, Aesch.; τὰ πάντα the whole, Id.

C. With Numerals it marks an exact number, ἐννέα πάντες quite nine, full nine, no less, Od.; δέκα πάντα τάλαντα Il.; but, κτήνεα τὰ θύσιμα πάντα τρισχίλια ἔθυσε 3000 of all kinds, Hdt.

II. with the Article, in all, οἱ πάντες εἷς καὶ ἐννενήκοντα Id.

D. Special Usages:—in dat. pl. masc. πᾶσι, with or in the judgment of all, Il., Soph.

2. πᾶσι as neut., in all things, altogether, Soph.

II. πάντα γίγνεσθαι to become all things, i.e. assume every shape, Od.; εἰς πᾶν ἀφικνεῖσθαι to venture everything, Xen.

2. πάντα εἶναί τινι to be everything to one, Hdt., Thuc., etc.

3. πάντα as Adv. for πάντως, in all points, entirely, wholly, Od., Soph., etc.:—but, τὰ πάντα in every way, by all means, altogether, Hdt.

III. neut. sing. τὸ πᾶν the whole, ones all, περὶ τοῦ παντὸς δρόμον θέειν Id.; τοῦ π. ἐλλείπειν Aesch.:—τὸ πᾶν as Adv., on the whole, altogether, Soph., etc.; with a negat. at all, Aesch.

2. πᾶν everything, anything, πᾶν μᾶλλον ἢ στρατιήν anything rather than an army, Hdt.; πᾶν ποιῶν by any means whatever, Plat.; so, πάντα ποιῶν Dem.

3. ἐπὶ πᾶν on the whole, in general, generally, Plat.

4. παντὸς μᾶλλον above all, absolutely, necessarily, Lat. ita ut nihil supra, Id.:—in answers, π. γε μᾶλλον yes, absolutely so, Id.

5. with Preps., ἐς πᾶν κακοῦ ἀπικέσθαι to all extremity of ill, Hdt.; so, εἰς πᾶν ἀφικέσθαι Xen.; ἐς τὸ πᾶν altogether, Aesch.:—ἐνπαντὶ ἀθυμίας εἶναι in all extremity of despair, Thuc.:—περὶ παντὸς ποιεῖσθαι to esteem above all, Lat. maximi facere, Xen.:—διὰ παντὸς (sc. χρόνου), or as one word διάπαντος, for ever, continually, Soph., Thuc., etc.: but also, altogether, Thuc., Plat.

Διὸς

GEL intermediate:

Ζεύς, ὁ, voc. Ζεῦ: the obl. cases (formed from Δίς), gen. Διός; dat. Διΐ, Δί [ῑ], acc. Δία:—in Poets also, Ζηνός, Ζηνί, Ζῆνα, in later Dor. Ζάν, Ζανός, etc.:—Zeus, Lat. Jupiter, father of gods and men, son of Kronos and Rhea, hence called Κρονίδης, Κρονίων, husband of Hera:—Hom. makes him rule in the lower air (ἀήρ); hence rain and storms come from him, Ζεὺς ὕει, etc.:—in oaths, οὐ μὰ Ζῆνα Hom., Att.; so μὰ Δία, νὴ Δία, Att.

II. Ζεὺς καταχθόνιος, Pluto, Il.

δ'

See above

ἐτελείετο

GEL intermediate:

τελέω, Ep. also τελείω: Ep. impf. τέλεον: f. τελέσω, Ep. τελέσσω, Ion. τελέω, Att. τελῶ: aor. I ἐτέλεσα, Ep. ἐτέλεσσα: pf. τετέλεκα:—Pass., Ep. pres. τελείομαι: f. τελεσθήσομαι, and f. med. in pass. sense, 3 sing. τελεῖται, inf. τελέεσθαι, τελεῖσθαι, part. τελεύμενος: aor. I ἐτελέσθην: pf. τετέλεσμαι, 3 sing. plqpf. τετέλεστο: (τέλος):—to complete, fulfil, accomplish, and, generally, to execute, perform, Lat. perficere, Hom.:—Pass., Id.; ἅμα μῦθος ἔην, τετέλεστο δὲ ἔργον ‘no sooner said than done,’ Il.

2. to fulfil ones word, Hom.: to grant one the fulfilment of anything, τί τινι Id.; τ. νόον τινί to fulfil his wish, Il.; τελέσαι κότον, χόλον to glut his fury, wrath, Ib.: c. inf., οὐδʼ ἐτέλεσσε φέρειν he succeeded not in bringing, Ib.; ὅρκια τελεῖν, like ὅρκον τελευτᾶν, to complete or confirm an oath, Ib.

3. to make perfect, ἀρετάν Pind.; τ. τινα to bless him with perfect happiness, Id.; so, τελεσθεὶς ὄλβος Aesch.:—also, to bring a child to maturity, bring it to the birth, Eur.

4. to bring to an end, finish, end, ὁδόν Il., etc.; without ὁδόν, to finish ones course to a place, arrive at it, Thuc.

5. of Time, Od., etc.:—Pass., ἤματα μακρὰ τελέσθη Ib.: of men, to come to ones end, Aesch.

6. intransitive like Pass. to be fulfilled, turn out so and so, Id., Soph.

II. to pay what one owes, pay ones dues, Il.: generally, to pay, present, Hom., Att.: absol. to pay tax, Hdt.:—Pass., of money, to be paid, Id.; of persons, to be subject to tax or tribute, Dem.

2. to lay out, spend, Hdt.:—Pass. to be spent or expended, Id.; ἐς τὸ δεῖπνον τετρακόσια τάλαντα τετελεσμένα laid out upon the supper, Id.

3. since, in many Greek cities, the citizens were distributed into classes acc. to their taxable property, τ. εἴς τινας meant to be rated as belonging to a class, Lat. censeri inter, τ. ἐσ Ἕλληνας, ἐς Βοιωτούς to belong to the Greeks, the Boeotians, Id.; εἰς ἀστοὺς τ. to become a citizen, Soph.; εἰς γυναῖκας ἐξ ἀνδρῶν τ. to become a woman instead of a man, Eur.: hence, πρὸς τὸν πατέρα τελέσαι to compare with his father, Hdt.

III. like τελειόω II, to make perfect, i.e. to initiate in the mysteries, Plat., Dem.:— Pass. to have oneself initiated, Lat. initiari, Ar., Plat., etc.; Διονύσῳ τελεσθῆναι to be consecrated to Dionysus, initiated in his mysteries, Hdt.:—c. acc., τελεσθῆναι Βακχεῖα Ar.

2. metaph., στρατηγὸς τελεσθῆναι to be formally appointed general, Dem.; τετελεσμένος σωφροσύνῃ a votary of temperance, Xen.

3. also of sacred rites, to perform, Eur., Anth.

βουλή,

GEL intermediate:

βουλή, ἡ, Dor. βωλά: (βούλομαι):—will, determination, Lat. consilium, esp. of the gods, Il., etc.

2. a counsel, piece of advice, plan, design, Ib., Hdt., Att.:—in pl. counsels, Aesch.

II. a Council of the elders or chiefs, a Senate, Hom., Aesch.:—at Athens, the Council of 500 created by Cleisthenes, Hdt., Ar., etc.:—βουλῆς εἶναι to be of the Council, a member of it, Thuc.

3.
πολλὰς
δ'
ἰφθίμους

Benner Selections:

ἰφθίμους agrees with ψυχάς, the masculine doing duty as feminine.

Leaf Iliad:

ἴφθιμος here, as in 24 other places (Knös), does not admit an initial Ϝ and never requires it. Thus connexion with Ϝίς, Ϝίφιος is impossible, in spite of the nearness of sense. For a suggested etymology see Collitz in AJP. viii. 214-7. The feminine ἰφθίμη is also found, but only applied to women—e.g. 19.116.

ψυχὰς
Ἄϊδι

Benner Selections:

Ἄιδι (Attic Ἅιδῃ, i. e. ᾅδῃ), declension, § 96; as used by Homer, almost always indicates the god himself, ‘Hades.’

Some important nouns and adjectives that exhibit irregularities of inflection are:

First declension, N. Ἀίδης (Attic Ἅιδης, i. e. ᾅδης), ‘Hades’
G. Ἀίδᾱο, Ἀίδεω
D. Ἀίδῃ
A. Ἀίδην
Third declension, N. — (stem Ἀιδ-)
G. Ἄϊδος
D. Ἄϊδι

The initial vowel of Ἄϊδος is long in the verse ending Ἄϊδος εἴσω.

Leaf Iliad:

Ἄϊδι, a metaplastic dative of Ἀΐδης, which in H. always means the god, not his realm — with the exception, apparently, of 23.244.

προΐαψεν

Leaf Iliad:

προΐαψε: προ implies ‘forth on their way,’ as in προπέμπειν, προιέναι (195, 442, etc.). ἰαπ- = iac-, so that προΐαψεν = pro-iec-it exactly.

4.
ἡρώων,
αὐτοὺς

Benner Selections:

αὐτούς, ‘the men themselves,’ τὰ σώματα, in contrast with the ψυχάς.

Leaf Iliad:

αὐτούς: the body is to Homer the real self, the ψυχή is a mere shadow; cf. 23.65, where the soul of Patroklos is πάντ' αὐτῶι εἰκυῖα, like the real man.

δὲ
ἑλώρια
τεῦχε

Benner Selections:

τεῦχε, not augmented, § 125.

The syllabic and temporal augments are often omitted. E. g. A 4, τεῦχε. A 6, διαστήτην (= δι-εστήτην). A 10, ὀλέκοντο (= Attic ὤλλυντο). A 56, ὁρᾶτο (= ἑώρᾱ).

κύνεσσιν

Benner Selections:

κύνεσσιν (Attic κυσί for κυν + σι), declension. § 78, § 82.

Endings of the Third Declension, Nouns and Adjectives (distinctively Homeric endings in bold type):

Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Singular: N. -ς, –
G. -ος -ος
D.
A. -α, -ν
V. -ς, –
       
Dual, all genders: N. A. V.
G. D. -οιιν
       
Plural: N. V. -ες
G. -ων -ων
D. -εσσι(ν), -σι(ν) -εσσι(ν), -σι(ν)
A. -ας, -[ν]ς

The two endings of the dative plural often occur in the same word. E. g. κύων (κυν-) has κύν-εσσιν (A 4), and κυ-σίν for κυν-σιν (18.179).

5.
οἰωνοῖσί

Benner Selections:

οἰωνοῖσι, declension, § 73, § 76.

Endings of the Second Declension, Nouns and Adjectives (distinctively Homeric endings in bold type):

Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Singular: Nom. -ος -ον
Gen. -οιο (-οο), -ου -οιο (-οο), -ου
Dat. -ῳ -ῳ
Acc. -ον -ον
Voc. -ον
       
Dual, all genders: N. A. V.
G. D. -οιιν
       
Plural: N. V. -οι
G. -ων -ων
D. -οισι(ν), -οις -οισι(ν), -οις
A. -ους

The dative plural ending -οισι(ν) is by far more common than -οις. The latter is, in many instances, only the elided form of -οισι and might be so written. E. g. A 307, οἷσ' ἑτάροισιν might be written for οἷς κτλ.

τε
πᾶσι,

Leaf Iliad:

πᾶσι, i.e. all that chose to come: a perfectly natural expression. The reading δαῖτα ascribed to Zen. is not mentioned in the scholia, which merely say that he athetized 4-5. The only authority for the statement is Athenaeus (i. p. 12), on whom no reliance can be placed. But the reading is in itself vigorous and poetical. In fact the metaphor is so natural that we cannot even argue with confidence that Aischylos had δαῖτα before him when he wrote (Supp. 800) κυσὶν δ' ἔπειθ' ἕλωρα κἀπιχωρίοις | ὄρνισι δεῖπνον οὐκ ἀναίνομαι πελεῖν: or Eur. Hec. 1077 σφακτὰν κυσί τε φονίαν δαῖτ' ἀνήμερον, Eur. Ion 505 πτανοῖς ἐξώρισε θοίναν θηρσί τε φοινίαν δαῖτα (Soph. is neutral, Aj. 830 ῥιφθῶ κυσὶν πρόβλητος οἰωνοῖς θ' ἕλωρ). In all these cases there is an apparent echo of the present passage, and δαῖτα if a real variant is much older than Zen. The argument against it in Athenaeus (often ascribed, though without ground, to Ar.), that H. never uses δαίς except of human banquets, is not even based on fact, see 24.43. On the whole δαῖτα seems intrinsically a better reading, but we have no right to leave the uniform tradition of the MSS.

Διὸς

Benner Selections:

Διός, declension, § 98. For Διόθεν cf. § 155.2.

Like the Attic Also
N. Ζεύς
G. Διός G. Ζηνός
D. Διί D. Ζηνί
A. Δία A. Ζῆνα and Ζῆν
V. Ζεῦ

-θεν signifies ‘from.’ E. g. A 195, οὐρανόθεν. Often it gives the force of a genitive, especially in pronouns: A 180, σέθεν. A 525, ἐξ ἐμέθεν. An adverbial example is A 247, ἑτέρωθεν, ‘from the other side,’ ‘over against him.’

δ'

Benner Selections:

δ'(), ‘while’; it will be observed that δέ must often be rendered not by this word only, but also by ‘for’ and even ‘although.’

ἐτελείετο

Benner Selections:

ἐτελείετο, spelling, § 150.

Present and Imperfect. Many presents end in -είω. E. g. τελείω (τελες+ιω, i. e. yo), Attic τελέω. A 5, ἐτελείετο, Attic ἐτελεῖτο. πνείω (Attic πνέω) is probably for πνεϜ-ω.

Note.—Very many contract verbs in -άω, which were not contracted in the earlier epic tongue, often appear in the MSS. in so-called “assimilated” or (according to others) “distracted” forms. E. g. for ἀντιάουσαν (A 31), ἐστιχάοντο (B 92), ἐλάειν (X 400), and μαιμᾱ́ων (O 742), the MSS. have respectively ἀντιόωσαν, ἐστιχόωντο, ἐλάᾱν, and μαιμώων. Such artificial forms, which probably were due to the influence of the Attic contractions (ἀντιῶσαν, ἐστιχῶντο, ἐλᾶν, μαιμῶν) on the epic dialect, are replaced throughout the accompanying text by the original uncontracted forms.

βουλή,

Benner Selections:

βουλή, the ‘purpose’ to defeat the Achaeans and to confer honor on the injured Achilles, in answer to Thetis's prayer; all this will be developed later.

Prosody  8

3. πολλὰς δ' φθίμους ψυχς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
− −| − −| −/ −|− vv|− vv|−−
4. ρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
− −|− −| − v/ v|− vv/ − v v|− −
5. οἰωνοῖσί τε πσι, Δις δ' ἐτελείετο βουλή,
− −| − v v| − v/ v|− v v| −v v| − −
3.
πολλὰς
δ'
ἰφθίμους

Third foot masculine caesura after word ἰφθίμους (on caesura see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1185, § 1186, § 1187).

Whenever a word ends within a foot, it is called caesura. If it coinsides with a pause in the verse, it is called the caesura of the verse. The caesura is employed with great skill in the Homeric poems to make the verse more melodious and to aid in its recital.

There is almost always a caesura in the third foot. It occurs either after the first syllable of the foot, or else between the two short syllables.

The pause after the first syllable is called the masculine caesura, that after the second the feminine.

ψυχὰς
Ἄϊδι
προΐαψεν
4.
ἡρώων,
αὐτοὺς
δὲ

Third foot feminine caesura after word δὲ.

ἑλώρια

Bucolic diaeresis after word ἑλώρια (on diaeresis see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1188, § 1189).

Whenever the end of a word coincides with the end of a foot, it is called diaeresis. When this falls with a pause, it is called the diaeresis of the verse.

The most important diaeresis is the one which comes at the end of the fourth foot. From its common employment in pastoral poetry it is called the bucolic diaeresis.

τεῦχε
κύνεσσιν
5.
οἰωνοῖσί
τε
πᾶσι,

Third foot feminine caesura after word πᾶσι.

Διὸς
δ'
ἐτελείετο
βουλή,

black-figured storage-jar (amphora) with a boy mounted on a centaur (perhaps Achilles and Cheiron) between palmettes. Attributed to a follower of the Micali Painter, perhaps the painter of the Bisenzio Group. Etruscan 500BC-480BC. British Museum.

Brygos Painter (potter, signed). Commonly interpreted as Briseis and Phoenix (Louvre caption, Beazley); minority opinion: Hecamede mixing kykeon for Nestor (A. Dalby, Siren Feasts, London, 1996, p.151). Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. 490 BC. From Vulci. Louvre Museum.

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