First Book of Homer's Iliad in Classics Unlocked format

Verses 6-7

ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
=ἐκ ὅς,
δή ὁ,
η, ον
out of,
(away) from
stand apart,
prep pron, neut,
sg, gen
part art, neut,
pl, acc
adj, neut,
pl, acc
verb, act,
ind, aor,
dual, 3rd
pple, act,
aor, masc,
dual, nom
see below
Syntax of
see below
Syntax of
see below
Syntax of
see below
Syntax of
aorist of
usage of ἐξ + sg. gen. of ὅ (ἐξ οὗ):
from the time when
usage of neut. pl. of πρῶτος (τὰ πρῶτα):
first, beginning
from the time when indeed first they two parted having quarreled
[θεὰ ἄειδε μῆνιν Ἀχιλῆος] ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς ἐρίσαντε διαστήτην.
from the time when first son of Atreus, lord of men, and divine Achilles quarreled and parted.
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
ᾱο, ὁ
τε ἄναξ,
καί δῖος,
α, ον
ῆος, ὁ
son of
(real) man,
as distinguis-
hed from
(mere) man
name, masc,
sg, nom
part noun, masc,
sg, nom
noun, masc,
pl, gen
part adj, masc,
sg, nom
name, masc,
sg, nom
native of
see below
Syntax of
native of
genitive of
see below
Syntax of
native of
native of
usage of τε . . καὶ . . :
both . . and . . , where τε points forward to καί, and usually need not be translated
son of
lord of men and divine Achilles
see Word order of the previous line
see Grammatical translation of the previous line



N. ὅ
G. οὗ, ὁου, ὁο
D. ᾧ
A. ὅ


N. ὥ
G. οἷιν
D. οἷιν
A. ὥ


N. ἅ
G. ὧν
D. ἧσι, ἧς
A. ἅ




N. τό
G. τοῦ, τοῖο
D. τῷ
A. τό


N. τῶ
G. τοῖιν
D. τοῖιν
A. τῶ


N. τά
G. τῶν
D. τοῖσι, τοῖς
A. τά




N. πρῶτον
G. πρώτου, πρώτοιο, πρώτοο
D. πρώτῳ
A. πρῶτον
V. πρῶτον


N. πρώτω
G. πρώτοιιν
D. πρώτοιιν
A. πρώτω
V. πρώτω


N. πρῶτα
G. πρώτων
D. πρώτοισι, πρώτοις
A. πρῶτα
V. πρῶτα


Conjugation in active indicative aorist:


1. διέστην
2. διέστης
3. διέστη


2. διέστητον
3. διεστήτην


1. διέστημεν
2. διέστητε
3. διέστησαν

In the word διαστήτην augment is omitted.

Pharr § 830:

Augment. — Greek verbs prefix an augment (increase) at the beginning of the secondary (816) tenses of the indicative, to denote past time.

Pharr § 831:

This augment is of two kinds:

1) syllabic augment, which prefixes ἐ- to verbs beginning with consonant, as λύω I loose, imperfect ἔλυον I was loosing.

2) temporal augment, which lengthens the first syllable of words beginning with a vowel or a diphtong, as ἀκούω I hear, ἤκουον I was hearing.

Pharr § 837:

The augment, both syllabic and temporal, is often omitted.

Pharr § 816:

The tenses of indicative are distinguished as:

1) principal (primary) tenses: the present, future, perfect and future perfect.

2) past (secondary) tenses: imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect (historical tenses).




N. ἐρίσας
G. ἐρίσαντος
D. ἐρίσαντι
A. ἐρίσαντα
V. ἐρίσας


N. ἐρίσαντε
G. ἐρισάντοιιν
D. ἐρισάντοιιν
A. ἐρίσαντε
V. ἐρίσαντε


N. ἐρίσαντες
G. ἐρισάντων
D. ἐρισάντε(σ)σι, ἐρίσασι
A. ἐρίσαντας
V. ἐρίσαντες




N. Ἀτρεΐδης
G. Ἀτρεΐδᾱο, Ἀτρεϊδέω
D. Ἀτρεΐδῃ
A. Ἀτρεΐδην
V. Ἀτρεΐδη


N. Ἀτρεΐδᾱ
G. Ἀτρεΐδῃιν
D. ΠἈτρεΐδῃιν
A. Ἀτρεΐδᾱ
V. Ἀτρεΐδᾱ


N. Ἀτρεΐδαι
G. Ἀτρεΐδάων
D. Ἀτρεΐδῃσι, Ἀτρεΐδῃς
A. Ἀτρεΐδᾱς
V. Ἀτρεΐδαι




N. ἄναξ
G. ἄνακτος
D. ἄνακτι
A. ἄνακτα
V. ἄναξ, ἄνα


N. ἄνακτε
G. ἀνάκτοιιν
D. ἀνάκτοιιν
A. ἄνακτε
V. ἄνακτε


N. ἄνακτες
G. ἀνάκτων
D. ἀνάκτεσ(σ)ι, ἄναξι
A. ἄνακτας
V. ἄνακτες




N. ἀνήρ
G. ἀνέρος, ἀνδρός
D. ἀνέρι, ἀνδρί
A. ἀνέρα, ἄνδρα
V. ἄνερ


N. ἀνέρε, ἄνδρε
G. ἀνέροιιν, ἄνδροιιν
D. ἀνέροιιν, ἄνδροιιν
A. ἀνέρε, ἄνδρε
V. ἀνέρε, ἄνδρε


N. ἀνέρες, ἄνδρες
G. ἀνέρων, ἀνδρῶν
D. ἀνδράσι, ἄνδρεσσι
A. ἀνέρας, ἄνδρας
V. ἀνέρες, ἄνδρες




N. δῖος
G. δίου, δίοιο, δίοο
D. δίῳ
A. δῖον
V. δῖε


N. δίω
G. δίοιιν
D. δίοιιν
A. δίω
V. δίω


N. δίοί
G. δίων
D. δίοισι, δίοις
A. δίους
V. δίοί




N. Ἀχιλεύς
G. Ἀχιλῆος
D. Ἀχιλῇι
A. Ἀχιλῆα
V. Ἀχιλεῦ

Syntax  1


See Basic analysis


See Basic analysis


Monro H. G. § 350:

δή is properly a temporal Particle, meaning now, at length (Lat. jam) : hence it implies arriving at a result, as ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην from the time that the point was reached when they quarrelled : εἰ δή if it has come to this that, and so if finally, if really. With Superlatives it expresses that the highest stage has been reached, as Il. 1. 266 κάρτιστοι δὴ κεῖνοι κτλ. these were quite (finally) the mightiest. So in questions, πῶς δή how has it come to be that—; and prohibitions, μὴ δή do not go so far as to—.

δή may begin a sentence in Homer, as Il. 15. 437 Τεῦκρε πέπον, δὴ νῶϊν ἀπέκτατο πιστὸς ἑταῖρος : and often in the combinations δὴ τότε (tum vero), and δὴ γάρ. The original meaning is best seen in these forms (where δή is emphatic), and in ἤδη (for ἦ δή), and ἐπεὶ δή.

As δή is one of the words which unite with a following vowel, so as to form one syllable, it is sometimes written δ', and so is liable to be confused with δέ. This occurs especially in the combinations δὴ αὖ, δὴ αὐτός, δὴ οὕτως : as Il. 1. 131 μὴ δὴ οὕτως, 340 εἴ ποτε δὴ αὖτε, 10. 385 πῆ δὴ οὕτως, 20.220 ὃς δὴ ἀφνειότατος κτλ. So in εἰ δ' ἄγε the sense generally requires δή : see § 321.

Note that δῆτα, δῆθεν (cognate or derivative forms) are post-Homeric ; as also are the combinations δήπου, καὶ δή.


See Basic analysis


See Basic analysis


Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1080:

The aorist indicative denotes the simple occurence of an action in past time, as ἔλυσα I loosed, did loose.


Goodwin G. G. § 1557:

The participle is a verbal adjective, and has three uses. First, it may express an attribute, qualifying a noun like an ordinary adjective (1559-1562) ; secondly, it may define the circumstances under which an action takes place (1563-1577) ; thirdly, it may be joined to certain verbs to supplement their meaning, often having a force resembling that of the infinitive (1578-1593).

Goodwin G. G. § 1563:

The participle may define the circumstances of an action. It may express following relations:—

1. Time; the tenses denoting various pints of time, which is relative to that of the verb of the sentence (1288). [...]

2. Cause, [...]

3. Means, manner, and similar relations, including manner of employment. [...]

4. Purpose or intension ; generally expressed by the future participle. [...]

5. Condition ; the tenses of the participle, representing the corresponding tenses of the indicative, subjunctive or optative, in all classes of protasis. [...]

6. Opposition, limitation or concession ; where the participle is generally to be translated by although and a verb. [...]

7. Any attendant circumstance, the participle being merely descriptive. This is one of the most common relations of this participle. E.g.

Ἐρχεται τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα, she comes bringing her son, X.C.1,31 Παραλαβόντες Βοιωτοὺς ἐστρατεύσαν ἐπὶ Φάρσαλον, they took Boeotians with them and marched against Pharsalus, T.1,111.

The participle here can often be best translated by a verb, as in the last example.

8. That in which the action of the verb consists. [...]

Smyth G. G. § 1872:

Participle (not in indirect discourse).—The participle, as a verbal adjective, is timeless. The tenses of the participle express only continuance, simple occurrence, and completion with permanent result. Whether the action expressed by the participle is antecedent, coincident, or subsequent to that of the leading verb (in any tense) depends on the context. The future participle has a temporal force only because its voluntative force points to the future.

a. Present (continuative) [...]

b. Future (chiefly voluntative) [...]

c. Aorist (simple occurrence). The action set forth by the aorist participle is generally antecedent to that of the leading verb ; but it is sometimes coincident or nearly so, when it defines, or is identical with, that of the leading verb, and the subordinate action is only a modification of the main action. [...]

d. Perfect (completion with permanent result) [...]


Pharr Hom. Gr. § 970:

The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case, as ὀλεκοντο δὲ λαοί and the people kept perishing, ἔδεισεν δ' ὁ γέρων and that old man feared.


See Basic analysis


See note on Ἀτρεΐδης


Pharr Hom. Gr. § 979:

Some of the most common uses of the genitive are:

1) Posession, as ψυχὰς ἡρώων souls of warriors, Διὸς βουλή the will of Zeus, ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν to the ships of the Achaeans: the possessive genitive.

2) The subject of an action or feeling, as μῆνιν Ἀχιλῆος the wrath of Achilles (i.e. felt by Achilles): the subjective genitive.

3) The object of an action or feeling, as Ἀχιλῆος ποθή a yearning of (i.e. for) Achilles, πόσιος και ἐδητύος ἔρον the desire of (i.e. for) food and drink: the objective genitive.

4) Μaterial or contents, as πυραὶ νεκύων funeral pyres of corpses, ἑκατόμβας ταύρων ἠδ’ αἰγῶν hecatombs of bulls and of goats: genitive of material.

5) Measure of time, space, or value (price), as κούρης Χρυσηίδος ἄποινα δέξασθαι to accept the ransoms for the maiden Chryseϊs: genitive of price.

6) Cause or origin, as εὐχολῆς ἐπιμέμφεται he finds fault on account of a vow (unperformed), χωόμενον γυναικός vexed for the sake of a woman: the genitive of cause.

7) The whole after words denoting the part, as τίς θεῶν which (one) of the gods? τὸ πλεῖον πολέμοιο the greater part of the war : the partitive genitive.


See Basic analysis


See note on Ἀτρεΐδης


See note on Ἀτρεΐδης


GEL intermediate:

ἘΚ, before a vowel ἘΞ, and ἘΓ before β γ δ λ μ:—Prep. governing GEN. only, Lat. e, ex:—Radical sense, from, out of, opp. to εἰς:


1. of Motion, out of, forth from, Hom., etc.: ἐκ θυμοῦ φίλεον I loved her from my heart, with all my heart, Il.

2. to denote change from one place or condition to another, κακὸν ἐκ κακοῦ one evil from (or after) another, Ib.; λόγον ἐκ λόγου λέγειν Dem.

3. to express distinction from a number, ἐκ πόλεων πίσυρες four out of many, Il.

4. of Position, like ἔξω, outside of, beyond, ἐκ βελέων out of shot, Ib.; ἐκ καπνοῦ out of the smoke, Od.

5. with Verbs of Rest, ἐκ ποταμοῦ χρόα νίζετο washed his body with water from the river, Ib.:—with Verbs signifying to hang or fasten, ἐκ πασσαλόφι κρέμασεν φόρμιγγα he hung his lyre from (i.e. on) the peg, Ib.; ἐκ τοῦ βραχίονος ἐπέλκουσα leading it [by a rein] upon her arm, Hdt.:—also, sitting or standing, στᾶσ’ ἐξ Οὐλύμποιο from Olympus where she stood, Il.; καθῆσθαι ἐκ πάγων to sit on the heights and look from them, Soph.

II. OF TIME, ἐξ οὗ or ἐξ οὗτε [χρόνου], Lat. ex quo, since, Hom., Att.; ἐκ τοῦ or ἐκ τοῖο from that time, Il.; ἐκ πολλοῦ (sc. χρόνου) for a long time, Thuc.

2. of particular points of time, ἐκ νέου or ἐκ παιδός from boyhood; ἐξ ἀρχῆς, etc.; so, ἐκ θυσίας γενέσθαι to have just finished sacrifice, Hdt.; ἐκ τοῦ ἀρίστου after breakfast, Xen.

3. when we say in or by, ἐκ νυκτῶν Od.; ἐκ νυκτός Xen., etc.


1. of the Material, out of or of which things are made, ποιεῖσθαι ἐκ ξύλων τὰ πλοῖα Hdt.

2. of the Father, ἔκ τινος εἶναι, γενέσθαι, φῦναι, etc., Il.; ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθκων Plat.

3. of the Author or Occasion of a thing, ὄναρ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν Il.; θάνατος ἐκ μνηστήρων death by the hand of the suitors, Od.; τὰ ἐξΕ͂̓λλήνων τείχεα walls built by them, Hdt.

4. with the agent after Pass. Verbs, where ὑπό is more common, ἐφίληθεν ἐκ Διός they were beloved of (i.e. by) Zeus, Il.

5. of the Cause, Instrument or Means by which a thing is done, ἐκ πατέρων φιλότητος in consequence of our fathers friendship, Od.; so, ἐκ τίνος; ἐκ τοῦ; wherefore? Eur.; ποιεῖτε ὑμῖν φίλους ἐκ τοῦ Μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας make yourselves friends of (i.e. by means of), N.T.

6. from, i.e. according to, ἐκ τῶν λογίων according to the oracles, Hdt.; ἐκ νόμων Aesch.

7. periphr. for an Adv., (as in Lat. ex consulto, ex composito), ἐκ βίας by force, = βιαίως, Soph.; ἐκ τοῦ φανεροῦ = φανερῶς, Thuc., etc.

8. with numerals, ἐκ τρίτου in the third place, Eur.


GEL intermediate:

ὍΣ, ἥ, ὅ, gen. οὗ, ἧς, οὗ, etc.:—Ep. gen. ὅου, ἕης; dat. pl. οἷσι, ᾗς, ἧσι.—Pronoun, which in early Greek was used

A. as a Demonstr. = οὗτος, ὅδε.

B. as a Relat.

A. DEMONSTR., this, that; sometimes also for αὐτός, he, she, it, only in nom.:

I. in Hom., ἀλλὰ καὶ ὃς δείδοικε Il.; ὃ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων Od.

II. in later Greek,

1. at the beginning of a clause, καὶ ὅς and he, καὶ ἥ and she, καὶ οἵ and they, Hdt., Plat.

2. ὃς καὶ ὅς such and such a person, Hdt.

3. ἦ δʼ ὅς, ἦ δʼ ἥ said he, said she, Plat.

4. in oppositions, Λέριοι κακοί οὐχ ὁ μέν, ὃς δʼ οὐ Phocyl.; ὃς μὲν. . , ὁ δὲ. . , Mosch., etc.

B. RELAT., who, which, Lat. qui, quae, quod: properly, the Relat. is governed by the Noun or Verb in its own clause, but it often takes the case of the Anteced. by attraction, τῆς γενεῆς, ἧς Τρωὶ Ζεὺς δῶκε (where the proper case would be ἥν) Il.; οὐδὲν ὧν λέγω (for οὐδὲν τούτων ἃ λέγω) Soph.:—reversely the Anteced. passes into the case of the Relat., τὰς στήλας, ἃς ἵστα, αἱ πλεῦνες (for τῶν στηλῶν, ἃς ἵστα, αἱ πλεῦνες) Hdt.

2. the neut. was used in Att. without an Antecedent, ὃ δὲ δεινότατόν γʼ ἐστὶν ἁπάντων, ὁ Ζεὺς γὰρ ἕστηκεν but what is the strangest thing of all is, that Zeus stands, Ar., etc.

3. in many instances the Gr. Relat. must be resolved into a Conjunction and Pron., ἄτοπα λέγεις, ὅς γε κελεύεις (for ὅτι σύ γε) Xen.; συμφορὰ δʼ, ὃς ἂν τύχῃ κακῆς γυναικός (for ἐάν τις) Eur.:—it is also used, where we should use the Inf., ἄγγελον 2398 ἧκαν, ὃς ἀγγείλειε nuncium miserunt, qui nunciaret, sent a messenger to tell, Od.; πέμψον τινʼ, ὅστις σημανεῖ Eur.

II. the Relat. Pron. joined with Particles or Conjunctions:

1. ὅς γε, v. ὅσγε.

2. ὃς δή, v. δή 1. 5.

3. ὃς καί who also, but καὶ ὅς and who.

4. ὄς κε or κεν, Att. ὃς ἄν, much like ὅστις, Lat. quicunque, whosoever, who if any.

III. absol. usages of certain Cases of the Relat. Pron.:

1. gen. sing. οὗ, of Place, like ὅπου, where, Aesch., Trag., etc.:—ἔστιν οὗ in some places, Eur.; οὐκ εἶδεν οὗ γῆς in what part of the earth, Id.:—in pregnant phrases, μικρὸν προϊόντες, οὗ ἡ μάχη ἐγένετο (for ἐκεῖσε οὗ) having gone on to the place where. . , Xen.

2. ἐξ οὗ (sub. χρόνου) from the time when, Hom., etc.

3. dat. fem. ἧ, Dor. ἇ, of Place, like Lat. qua, where: also with Sup. Adv., ᾗ μάλιστα, ᾗ ῥᾷστα, ῃ ἄριστον, etc., like ὡς μάλιστα, etc., and Lat. quam celerrime, Xen.

4. acc. sing. neut. ὅ for διʼ ὅ or ὅτι, that, how that, also because, Lat. quod, Hom.:— also wherefore, Lat. quapropter, Eur.


GEL intermediate:

δή, Particle used to give greater exactness, to the word or words which it influences (prob. a shortened form of ἤδη, Lat. jam) now, in truth, indeed, surely, really.

I. Usage of δή with single words:

1. after Adjectives, οἶος δή, μόνος δή, all alone, Od., etc.; esp. such as imply magnitude, μέγας δή, μικρὸς δή, etc.; often with Superlatives, μέγιστος δή, κράτιστος δή quite the greatest, confessedly the best, Thuc.; so with Numerals, ὄκτω δὴ προέηκα ὀϊστούς I have shot full eight arrows, Il.; εἷς δή one only, Eur., etc.

2. after Adverbs, πολλάκις δή many times and oft, often ere now, Lat. jam saepe, Il.; ὀψὲ δὲ δή quite late, Ib.; νῦν δή even now, now first, now at length, Xen., etc.:—τότε δή at that very time, Thuc.; αὐτίκα δὴ μάλα on the very spot, Plat.; also, ναὶ δή yea verily, Il.; οὐ δή surely not, Soph.

3. with Verbs, δὴ γὰρ ἴδον ὀφθαλμοῖσι for verily I saw him, Il.

4. with Substantives, ἐς δὴ τὸ Ἄργος τοῦτο. . well to this A. they came, Hdt.; τέλος δή its complete end, Aesch.; ironically, Lat. scilicet, εἰσήγαγε τὰς ἑταιρίδας δή the pretended courtesans, Xen.

5. with Pronouns, to mark strongly, ἐμὲ δή a man like me, Hdt.; σὺ δή you of all persons, Id.; οὗτος δή this and no other, Id.; ὅς δή who plainly, Il.:—with indef. Pronouns, ἄλλοι δή others be they who they may, Ib.; δή τις some one or other, Lat. nescio quis, Plat.; δή τι in any way, whatever it be, Il., Hdt.

II. in reference to whole clauses:

1. to continue a narrative, so then, so, τότε μὲν δὴ ἡσυχίην εἶχε Hdt.; in summing up, τοιαῦτα μὲν δὴ ταῦτα, Lat. haec hactenus, Aesch.

2. in inferences, Hdt., etc.; esp. to express what is unexpected, καὶ σὺ δή so then you too! Aesch.

3. with Imper. and Subj., ἐννοεῖτε γὰρ δή for do but consider, Xen.; so, ἄγε δή, φέρε δή, ἴθι δή, σκόπει δή, etc.

4. γε δή to express what follows a fortiori, μετὰ ὅπλων γε δή above all with arms, Thuc.; μή τί γε δή not to mention that, Dem.

5. καὶ δή and what is more, Il.: so, ἐς Αἴγυπτον ἀπίκετο, καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Σάρδις he came to Egypt, and what is more to Sardis also, Hdt.; ἰσχὺς καὶ κάλλος καὶ πλοῦτος δή and above all riches, Plat.

b. καὶ δή is also in answers, βλέψον κάτω. Answ. καὶ δὴ βλέπω, well, I am looking, Ar.

c. in assumptions, καὶ δὴ δέδεγμαι and now suppose I have accepted, Aesch.


GEL intermediate:

ὁ, ἡ, τό, is

A. demonstr. Pronoun.

B. the definite Article.

C. in Ep., the relative Pronoun, when it is written with the accent ὅ, ἥ, τό = ὅς, ἥ, ὅ. Besides the common forms, note Ep. gen. sing. τοῖο for τοῦ; pl. nom. τοί, ταί; gen. fem. τάων [ᾰ], dat. τοῖσι, τῇς and τῇσι; dual gen, and dat. τοῖιν:—in Trag. we find τοὶ μέν. . , τοὶ δέ. . , for οἱ μέν. . , οἱ δέ. . ; dat. pl. also τοῖσι, ταῖσι: the dual has commonly but one gender, τώ for τά, τοῖν for ταῖν.


I. joined with a Subst., not as the Art., but like Lat. ille, ὁ Τυδείδης Tydeus, famous son, Il.; Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων Nestor—that aged man, Ib.; τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου for honour, namely that of Priam, Ib.

II. without a Subst., he, she, it, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε Ib., etc.

III. pecul. usages,

1. before Relat. Pronouns, to call attention to the foregoing noun, ἐφάμην σε περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, τῶν ὅσσοι Λυκίκην ναιετάουσιν far above the rest, namely above those who. . , Ib.

2. ὁ μέν. . , ὁ δέ. . , either in Opposition, ὁ μέν the former, ὁ δέ the latter), or in Partition, the one. . , the other. . , Lat. hic. . , ille. . .

IV. absolute usages of single cases,

1. fem. dat. τῇ, there, on that spot, Hom.; τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ Xen.:—with a notion of motion towards, thither, Il.

b. of Manner, τῇπερ in this way, thus, Od.; τῇ μέν. . , τῇ δέ. . , in one way. . , in another. . , or partly. . , partly, Eur., etc.

c. relative, where, for ἧ, Hom.

2. neut. gen. τοῦ, therefore, Id.

3. neut. dat. τῷ, therefore, Id., Soph.

b. thus, in this wise, then, if this be so, on this condition, Hom.

4. neut. acc. τό, wherefore, Id., Soph.; τὸ δέ, absol., but as to this. . , Plat.

5. τὸ μέν. . , τὸ δέ. . , partly. . , partly. . , or on the one hand. . , on the other. . , Od., Att.; τὰ μέν. . , τὰ δέ. . , Hdt., Soph., Thuc.; also, τὰ μέν τι. . , τὰ δέ τι. . , Xen.

6. with Prepositions, of Time, ἐκ τοῦ, Ep. τοῖο, ever since, Il.

b. πρὸ τοῦ, sometimes written προτοῦ, before this, aforetime, Hdt., Aesch.; so, ἐν τῷ προτοῦ χρόνῳ Thuc.

7. ἐν τοῖς is often used in Prose with Superlatives, ἐν τοῖς θειότατον one of the most marvellous things, Hdt.; ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι among the first, Thuc.

B. ὁ, ἡ, τό, THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, the indefin. being τὶς, τὶ, a or an. The use of ὁ, ἡ, τό, as the Article sprung from its use as demonstr. Pron., τὸν ὀπίστατον him that was hindmost, i.e. the hindmost man, Il.; τὸν ἄριστον him that was bravest, etc.;—also with Advs. τὸ πρίν, τὸ πάρος περ, τὸ πρόσθεν, τὸ τρίτον, τὰ πρῶτα all in Il.

II. the true Article is first fully established in Att.: it is omitted with prop. names and with appellatives which require no specification, as θεός, βασιλεύς:—but it is added to Prop. Names, when there has been previous mention of the person, as Thuc. speaks first of Πειθίας, and then refers to him as ὁ Π.; or to give pecul. emphasis, like Lat. ille, ὁ Λάϊος, ὁ Φοῖβος Soph.

2. with Infinitives, which thereby become Substantives, τὸ εἶναι the being; τὸ φρονεῖν good sense, etc.

3. in neuter, to specify any word or expression, τὸ ἄνθρωπος the word man; τὸ λέγω the word λέγω; τὸ μηδὲν ἄγαν the sentiment ‘ne quid nimis.’

4. before Pronouns,

a. before the pers. Pron., to give them greater emphasis, but only in acc., τὸν ἐμέ, τὸν σὲ καὶ ἐμέ Plat.

5. before the interrog., to make the question more precise, τὸ τί; Aesch., etc.; τὰ ποῖα; Eur.

III. Elliptic. expressions:

1. before the gen. of a prop. n., to express descent, ὁ Διός (sc. παῖς), ἡ Λητοῦς (sc. θυγάτηρ) often in Att.; but sometimes, as appears from the context, to denote husband, brother, friend, wife:—then before a gen. it indicates all general relations, as, τὰ τῆς πόλεως all that concerns the state; τὰ τῶν’ Αθηναίων φρονεῖν to hold with the Athenians, be on their side, Hdt.:—so with neut. of possess. Pron., τὸ ἐμόν, τὸ σόν what regards me or thee, my or thy business. But τὸ τινος is often also, a mans saying, as, τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος Hdt.

2. with cases governed by Preps., οἱ ἐν τῇ πόλει, οἱ ἀπὸ (or ἐκ) τῆς πόλεως the men of the city; οἱ ἀμφί τινα, οἱ περί τινα such an one and his followers, but also periphr. for the person himself.

3. on μὰ τόν, v. μά IV.

4. πορεύεσθαι τὴν ἔξω τείχους (sc. ὁδόν), Plat.; κρίνασθαι τὴν ἐπὶθάνατον, v. θάνατος 1. 2; ἡ αὔριον (sc. ἡμέρα) the morrow:—also with Advs., which thus take an Adject. sense, as, ὁ, ἡ, τὸ νῦν the present; οἱ τότε ἄνθρωποι the men of that time, also οἱ τότε, οἱ νῦν, etc.; τὸ πρίν formerly; τὸ πρόσθεν, τὸ πρῶτον, etc.; τὸ ἀπὸ τούτου, τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε from the present time, etc.

C. CRASIS OF ART.:—in Trag. ὁ, ἡ, τό, with ᾰ make ᾱ, as ἁνήρ, ἅνθρωπος, ἁλήθεια, ἁρετή, τἀγαθόν, τἀδικεῖν, τᾄτιον; so, οἱ, αἱ, τά, as ἅνδρες, ἅνθρωποι, τἀγαθά, τἀκίνητα; also τοῦ, τῷ, as τάγαθοῦ, τἀγαθῷ:—ὁ, τό, οἱ, with ε become ου, οὑξ, οὑπί, οὑμός, τοὔργον, οὑπιχώριοι, etc.; also τοῦ, as τοὐμοῦ, τοὐπιόντος; but in one case ᾱ, ἅτερος, θἄτερον, for οὔτερος (which is Ion.); τῷ remains unchanged, τὠμῷ, τὠπιόντι:—ἡ with ε becomes ᾱ, ἁτέρα:—ὁ, τό before ο becomes ου, as Οὕλυμπιος, τοὔνομα:—ὁ, τό, etc., before αυ do not change the diphthong, αὑτός, ταὐτό, ταὐτῷ; so, τὰ αὐτά = ταὐτά, αἱ αὐταί = αὑταί:—ἡ before εὐ becomes ηὑ, as ηὑλάβεια:—τῇ before ἡ becomes θη, as θἠμέρα:—τό before ὑ becomes θου-, as θοὔδωρ for τὸ ὕδωρ.


GEL intermediate:

πρότερος and πρῶτος, Comp. and Sup. formed from πρό, as Lat. prior, primus, from prae.

A. Comp. πρότερος, α, ον,

I. of Place, before, in front, forward, Il.; πόδες πρ. the fore feet, Od.

II. of Time, before, former, sooner, Hom., etc.; οἱ πρότεροι men of former times, Il.; πρότερος γενεῇ Ib.; but, πρ. παῖδες children by the first or a former marriage, Od.; τῇ προτέρῃ (sc. ἡμέρᾳ) on the day before, Lat. pridie, Ib.; ὁ πρότερος Διονύσιος Dionysius the elder, Xen.:—the Adj. is often used where we use the Adv., ὅ με πρότερος κάκ’ ἔοργεν Il., etc.

2. as a regular Comp., c. gen., Ib., Hdt., etc.; also foll. by ἤ, τῷ προτέρῳ ἔτεϊ ἢ κρητῆρα [ἐληίσαντο] Hdt.

III. of Rank, Worth, and generally of Precedence, before, above, superior, Dem.; πρ. τινος πρός τι superior to him in a thing, Plat.

IV. after Hom., neut. πρότερον as Adv. before, sooner, earlier, Hdt., etc.; ὀλίγον πρ. Plat.:—c. gen., ὀλίγῳ τι πρ. τούτων Hdt., etc.; most commonly foll. by ἤ, Id., Att.; also by πρίν, πρὶν ἄν, πρὶν ἤ, Hdt., Att.; also used with the Art., τὸ πρ. τῶν ἀνδρῶν τούτων Hdt.: Adv. often between Art. and Subst., e.g. ὁ πρότερον βασιλεύς Id.

B. Sup. πρῶτος, η, ον, contr. from *πρόατος, Dor. πρᾶτος:

I. Adj. first, serving as the ordinal to the cardinal εἷς, Hom.

2. of Place, first, foremost, ἐνὶ πρώτοισι or μετὰ πρώτοισι alone, Il.; ἐν πρώτῳ ῥυμῷ at the front or end of the pole, Ib.; πρώτῃσι θύρῃσι at the first or outermost doors, Ib.

3. of Time, πρὸς πρώτην ἕω at first dawn, Soph.

4. of Order, πρῶτοι πάντων ἀνθρώπων Hdt.; τῇ πρώτῃ τῶν ἡμερῶν Id.:—ἐν πρώτοις, among the first, then like Lat. imprimis, above all, especially, greatly, Id.; in Att., ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι (v. ὁ, ἡ, τό A. IV. 7):—in late Greek it is even foll. by a gen., πρῶτός μου N.T.

5. of Rank, μετὰ πρώτοισιν among the first men of the state, Od., etc.

II. neut. pl. πρῶτα, τά,

1. (sc. ἆθλα), the first prize, Il., Soph.

2. the first part, beginning, τῆσἸλιάδος τὰ πρ. Plat., etc.

3. the first, highest, in degree, τὰ πρ. τᾶς λιμῶ (Dor.) the extremities of famine, Ar.; ἐς τὰ πρῶτα τιμᾶσθαι Thuc.:—of persons, ἐὼν τῶν Ἐρετριέων τὰ πρῶτα Hdt.; τὰ πρῶτα τῆς ἐκεῖ μοχθηρίας the chief of the rascality down there, Ar.

III. as Adv.,

1. τὴν πρώτην (sc. ὥραν, ὁδόν) first, at present, just now, Hdt., etc.; so, τὴν πρώτην εἶναι, like ἑκὼν εἶναι, at first, Id.

2. with Preps., ἀπὸ πρώτης (sc. ἀρχῆς), Thuc.

3. most commonly in neut. sing. and pl., πρῶτον, πρῶτα,

a. first, in the first place, Lat. primum, Hom., etc.

b. = πρότερον, before, Xen., Anth.

4. first, for the first time, Soph., etc.; ἐπεὶ πρῶτον, Lat. quum primum, as soon as, Hom.; so, ὁππότε κε πρῶτον Od.; ὅτε or ὅταν πρ. Dem.; ἐὰν or ἢν πρ. Plat.

IV. Adv. πρώτως, Arist., etc.


GEL intermediate:

δι-ΐστημι, f. -στήσω, to set apart, to place separately, separate, Thuc., Dem.

2. to set one at variance with another, τινά τινος Ar., Thuc.; δ. τὴν̓͂Ελλάδα to divide it into fractions, Hdt.

II. Med. and Pass., with aor. 2, pf., and plqpf. act., to stand apart, to be divided, Il.; θάλασσα διΐστατο the sea made way, opened, Ib.; τὰ διεστεῶτα chasms, Hdt.

2. of persons, to stand apart, be at variance, Il., Thuc.; διέστη ἐς ξυμμαχίαν ἑκατέρων sided with one or the other party, Id.:—simply to differ, be different, Xen.

3. to part after fighting, Hdt.

4. to stand at certain distances or intervals, Id.; of soldiers, δ. κατὰ διακοσίους Thuc.


GEL intermediate:

ἐρίζω, Ep. inf. ἐριζέμεναι -έμεν, Dor. ἔρισδεν: impf. ἤριζον, Ep. ἔριζον, Ion. ἐρίζεσκον: fut. ἐρίσω:—Ep. aor. I ἤρῐσα, Ep. opt. ἐρίσσειε:—pf. ἤρἴκα Polyb.:—Med., Ep. aor. I subj. ἐρίσσεται (for ἐρίσηται): pf. ἐρήρισμαι: (ἔρις):—to strive, wrangle, quarrel, τινί with one, Hom., Att.; πρός τινα Hdt., Plat.

2. to rival, vie with, be a match for, τινί Hom.:—c. acc. rei, to contend with one in a thing, Id.;—also, c. dat. rei, Od., Att.

3. absol. to engage in a contest, keep the contest up, Il.

II. Hom. sometimes uses the Med., like the Act.


GEL intermediate:

τε, enclitic Particle, and, answering to Lat. que, as καί to et. It may simply join clauses, as ὃς Χρύσην ἀμφιβέβηκας Κίλλαν τε ζαθέην, Τενέδοιό τε ἶφι ἀνάσσεις Il.; or it may be repeated as τε. . τε. . , both. . and. . , as πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Hom. So also τε. . , καὶ. . , as διαστήτην Ἀτρείδης τε καὶ δῖος Αχιλλεύς Il., etc.:—used to show coincidence of Time, μεσαμβρίη τέ ἐστι καὶ τὸ κάρτα γίγνεται ψυχρόν Hdt., etc.

2. the combination καί τε is peculiar to Ep., and also, Hom.

II. in Ep. Poetry, τε is attached to many relative Pronouns or Particles, without altering their sense, as ὅστε, ὅσος τε, γάρ τε, δέ τε, μέν τε, ἔνθα τε, ἵνα τε, etc.: in Att., this τε was dropped, except in a few words, as ἅτε, ὥστε, ἐφʼ ᾧτε, οἷός τε, ἔστε.


GEL intermediate:

ἄναξ [ᾰ], ἄνακτος, ὁ: voc. ἄνα: (ἀνάσσω):—a lord, master, being applied to the gods, esp. to Apollo and Zeus, Hom.; to the latter in voc., Ζεῦ ἄνα Il.

II. among the Homeric heroes Agamemnon is ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν; but ἄναξ is a title given to all men of rank and note, as to Teiresias, Od.; βασιλεὺς ἄναξ lord king, Ib.

III. the master of the house, esp. as denoting the relation of master to slave, Ib.

IV. metaph., κώπης, ναῶν ἄνακτες lords of the oar, of ships, Aesch.; ἄν. ὅπλων Eur.


GEL intermediate:

ἀνήρ (Root ΑΝΕΡ), ἀνέρος, ὁ, Att. ἀνδρός, ἀνδρί, ἄνδρα, voc. ἄνερ: pl. ἄνδρες, - δρῶν, -δράσι [ᾰ], -δρας: [ᾰ: but in Ep. ἀνέρος, ἀνέρι, ἀνέρες, ᾱ]:—a man, Lat. vir (not homo):

I. a man, opp. to a woman, Hom., etc.

II. a man, opp. to a god, πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Id.

III. a man, opp. to a youth, a man in the prime of life, Id., etc.; εἰς ἄνδρας ἐγγράφεσθαι to be enrolled among the men, Dem.

IV. a man emphatically, a man indeed, ἀνέρες ἔστε, φίλοι Il.; πολλοὶ μὲν ἄνθρωποι, ὀλίγοι δὲ ἄνδρες many human beings, but few men, Hdt.

V. a man, opp. to his wife, a husband, Hom., etc.; αἰγῶν ἄνερ, Virgils vir gregis, Theocr.


GEL intermediate:

ΚΑΊ, Conjunction, used in two principal senses, either copulative, to join words and sentences, and, Lat. et; or making a single word or clause emphatic, also, even, Lat. etiam.

A. copulative, and, merely joining words or sentences, Lat. et, while τε answers to que, Hom., etc.: to combine more closely, τε. . , καὶ. . are used, ἄρκτοι τε καὶ λέοντες both bears and lions, etc.; often to add epithets after πολύς, πολλὰ καὶ ἐσθλά Il.; πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα Dem., etc.:—θεοὶ καὶ Ζεύς all the gods, and above all Zeus, Aesch.; ἄλλοι τε καί. . , ἄλλως τε καί. . , v. ἄλλος, ἄλλως:—ὀλίγου τινὸς ἄξια καὶ οὐδενός worth little or nothing, Plat.

II. in questions, to introduce an objection, καὶ πῶς. . ; but how. . ? nay how can it be? Eur., etc.:—also = καίτοι, and yet, Ar.

III. after words implying sameness or likeness, καί must be rendered by as, like Lat. atque or ac after aeque, perinde, simul, γνώμῃσι ὁμοίῃσι καὶ σύ the same opinion as you, Hdt.; ἴσον or ἴσα καί. . , Soph., etc.: in Att., καί. . , καί. . answer to the Lat. cum, tum, not only, but also, Plat., etc.

B. influencing single words or clauses, also, even, Lat. etiam, ἔπειτά με καὶ λίποι αἰών then let life also forsake me, i.e. life as well as all other goods, Il.; καὶ αὐτοί they also, they likewise, Xen.; εἴπερ τισκαὶ ἄλλος Plat., etc.


GEL intermediate:

δῖος, δῖα, δίον (fem. δῖος and δία in Eur.), contr. for δίϊος: (Διός, gen. of Δίς):—godlike, divine, Il.; δῖα γυναικῶν noblest of women, Od.:—also worthy, trusty, the swineherd, Ib.; of whole nations or cities, Hom.; of a noble horse, Il.

2. of things, like θεῖος, θεσπέσιος, ἱερός, divine, wondrous, Hom.

II. in literal sense, of or from Zeus, Aesch.


GEL intermediate:

Ἀχιλλεύς, gen. Ἀχιλλέως, Ep. ῆος, acc. Ἀχιλλέᾱ, voc. Ἀχιλλεῦ: Ep. nom. also Ἀχιλεύς: (from ἄχος, the grief of the hero being the subject of the Il., cf. Ὀδυσ- σεύς).:—Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, prince of the Myrmidons.


Benner Selections:

ἐξ οὗ κτλ. (καὶ τὰ λοιπά = et cetera), ‘from the time when once they quarreled and parted’; to be joined in thought with 1.1: ‘sing of the wrath from the time when’ etc.

Leaf Iliad:

ἐξ οὗ may refer to the preceding line, ‘the will of Zeus was being fulfilled from the time when’ (so Ar.); or better, to ἄειδε in the first line, ‘take up the song from the point when,’ as in Od. 8.500 φαῖνε δ' ἀοιδήν, ἔνθεν ἑλών, ὡς οἱ μέν, κτλ. The extraordinary variant διὰ στήτην (ἐρίσαντο) was explained to mean ‘on account of a woman’ (!)


Benner Selections:

διαστήτην, not augmented, § 125.

The syllabic and temporal augments are often omitted. E. g. A 4, τεῦχε. A 6, διαστήτην (= δι-εστήτην). A 10, ὀλέκοντο (= Attic ὤλλυντο). A 56, ὁρᾶτο (= ἑώρᾱ).


Benner Selections:

Ἀτρεΐδης, formation, § 157. Agamemnon is meant, as is suggested by the appositive ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν. In another context the word might indicate his brother Menelaus as well (cf. 3.347, 350, 361).

Masculine patronymics end in -ιά-δης, -ί-δης, -ά-δης, and -ίων: Πηληιάδης, Πηλεΐδης, Πηλεΐων (Πηλεύς), ‘son of Pe leus’; Θεστορίδης (Θέστωρ), ‘son of Thestor’; Μεγάδης, ‘son of Megas’; Κρονῑ́ων, ‘son of Cronus.’


Benner Selections:

ἄναξ, on the hiatus, § 25, § 27, § 60, § 61.

Hiatus (Latin for ‘gaping’) occurs when a word ending in a vowel immediately precedes another which begins with a vowel. It may be avoided, of course, by elision, as ἔφατ'(ο) εὐχόμενος. It is chiefly found under the following conditions:

1. If the first of the two words ends in a long vowel or a diphthong which is regarded and used as a short syllable. This shortening of a final long vowel or diphthong in the arsis, before an initial vowel of the following word, is very common. E. g.

A 14, ἑ|κηβόλου | Ἀπόλ|λωνος
v| – v v | – – | – v
A 15, χρυσέῳ ἀ|νὰ κτλ. (-εῳ is pronounced as one syllable; cf. § 43).
– v v| –
Γ 164,
οὔτί μοι| αἴτίη | ἐσσί· || θε|οί νύ μοι | αἴτιοί | εἰσιν
– v v | – vv | – v || v|– v v | – v v | – v

a. Final -αι and -οι, though short in determining word accent, are metrically long except under the condition just noted.

2. If the first word ends in -ι (dative singular of third declension) or -υ. E. g. B 6, Ἀγαμεμνονι οὖλον. Ω 387, σύ ἐσσι. But many such instances (e. g. A 393) must be referred to § 25.3.

3. If the first word is followed by a natural pause ( § 16, § 19, 20). E. g.

(a) Feminine caesura of third foot:

A 27, ἢ νῦν δηθύνοντα || ἢ ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα.

(b) Masculine caesura of third foot:

A 114, κουριδίης ἀλόχου, || ἐπεὶ οὔ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων.

(c) Bucolic diaeresis:

B 3, ἀλλ' ὅ γε μερμήριζε κατὰ φρένα, | ὡς Ἀχιλῆα.

(d) Diaeresis after first foot:

I 247, ἀλλ' ἄνα, | εἰ μέμονάς γε κτλ.

After the formula αὐτὰρ ὅ at the beginning of a line hiatus is several times found (as in A 333), although there is actually no pause in sense.

4. If the first word ends with the thesis of a foot, even when no natural pause occurs at that point. E. g.

A 30,ἡμετέ|ρῳ ἐνὶ | κτλ.
– v v| – ν ν |

Hiatus seems to occur in some places where it really did not exist in the original words of the poet. This is because he or his predecessors pronounced an initial letter, usually digamma (Ϝ), which later disappeared (cf. § 61). E. g.

A 7, Ἀτρεΐδης τε Ϝάναξ κτλ.

Digamma. The letter digamma, Ϝ—, which belonged originally to most—if not all—Greek alphabets, means literally double gamma, from its form Ϝ. Its value was that of the English w ; when vocalized, it became υ. When epic poetry began to flourish, it was a living sound ; but in the progress of the ages during which the Iliad and Odyssey were transmitted, it seems to have diappeared from the Ionic dialect ; and when at last these poems were written down, no sign was used to indicate a sound with which the scribes themselves were possibly unacquainted. Nevertheless traces of the letter survive in lengthened syllables and in instances of hiatus which otherwise would be irregular ; compare §§ 27, 37, 38.

Initial Digamma.Full lists of words that once were spelled with digamma, with or without other lost consonants, may be found in large grammars and lexicons. The following illustrative list is selected from instances in A and B; the words are grouped in order of roots or stems:

1. (ἐ)Ϝάνδανε, ἥνδανε (A 24), Ϝηδύ (B 270). The original spelling was σϜαδ-: cf. Lat. suāvis, Eng. ‘sweet.’

2. Ϝάλις (B 90).

3. Ϝάναξ (A 7), Ϝανάσσεις (A 38).

4. Ϝάστυ (B 803). Cf. Lat. Vesta(?).

5. ϜιϜάχω: Ϝηχήεσσα (A 157).

6. Ϝε (A 406), Ϝοι (A 104), Ϝεθεν (A 114), etc., pronoun of third person; Ϝῇσιν (A 333), etc., from Ϝός, possessive pronoun of third person; also ἑϜοῖσι (A 83), etc., from ἑϜός. There were original forms in σϜ-: cf. Lat. suus.

7. Ϝειαρινῇ (B 471) for Ϝεαρινῇ. Ϝέαρ=Lat. vēr.

8. Ϝέθνεα (B 87).

9. Ϝείκοσι (B 748), ἐϜείκοσιν (A 309), Lat. vīgintī.

10. Ϝέκαθεν: Ϝεκα- τηβελέτᾱο (A 75), etc.

11. Ϝέκαστα (A 550).

12. Ϝεκών: ἀ-Ϝέκοντος (A 301).

13. Ϝέλπομαι: ἐπι-Ϝέλπεο (A 545), ἐϜέλδωρ (A 41). Cf. Lat. voluptās, etc.

14. Ϝείλω: Ϝέλσαι (A 409).

15. Ϝελίσσω: Ϝελικώπιδα (A 98), ἀμφι-Ϝελίσσᾱς (B 165).

16. Ϝειπέ (A 85), προσέϜειπεν (A 105), Ϝέπος (A 108). Cf. Lat. vōx, etc.

17. Ϝείρω: Ϝερέω (A 204). Cf. Lat. verbum, Eng. ‘word.’

18. Ϝέργα (A 115). Cf. Eng. ‘work.’

19. Ϝερυσσάμενος (A 190).

20. Ϝέννῡμι: ἐπι-Ϝειμένε (A 149), Ϝείματα (B 261) for Ϝεσ-ματα. Cf. Lat. vestiō, vestis, Eng. ‘wear.’

21. Ϝῖφι (A 38). Cf. Lat. vī.

22. Ϝῑ́εμαι, ‘be eager,’ ‘press on’; Ϝῑεμένων (B 154), not to be confused with forms of ἵημι.

23. Ϝιδών (A 148). Ϝοῖσθα (A 85), Ϝίδμεν (A 124), Ϝιδυίῃ (A 365). Ϝείσαιτο (B 215), ἐϜεισάμενος (B 22). Cf. Lat. videō, Eng. ‘wit.’

24. ϜέϜοικεν (A 119), ϜεϜοικώς (A 47), (ἐ)ϜεϜίκτην (A 104), and various compounds (A 97, 131, 547).

25. Ϝῑ́λιον (B 216).

26. Ϝῖρις (B 786).

27. Ϝῖσον (A 163), ἐϜίσᾱς (A 306).

28. Ϝοίκῳ (A 30), Ϝοῖκόνδε (A 606). Cf. Lat. vīcus, Eng. ‘wick’ (War-wick).

29. Ϝοῖνον (A 462), Ϝοίνοπα (A 350). Cf. Lat. vīnum, Eng. ‘wine.’


Benner Selections:

Ἀχιλλεύς, spelled with two λ's (compare Ἀχιλῆος, 1.1), § 39.

These same consonants (λ, μ, ν, ρ, σ) are sometimes found written double, within a word, lengthening a preceding short syllable on which the ictus rests. E. g. A 173, ἐπέσσυται. A 278, ἔμμορε. A 420, ἀγάννιφον for ἀγά-σνιφον. B 170, ἐυσσέλμοιο. B 452, ἄλληκτον. Γ 34, ἔλλαβε. T 35, ἀπο[ff]ειπών.

A 7, Ἀχιλλεύς, but A 1, Ἀχιλῆος. A 145, Ὀδυσσεύς, but A 138, Ὀδυσῆος. The longer spellings of the last two words may be original.

Prosody  2

6. ξ οὗ δ τὰ πρτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
−| −| − v/ v|− −|− v v|− −
7. τρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρν καὶ δος Ἀχιλλεύς.
− vv|− v v|−/ −| − − / −v v|− −

Third foot feminine caesura after word πρῶτα (on caesura see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1185, § 1186, § 1187).

Whenever a word ends within a foot, it is called caesura. If it coinsides with a pause in the verse, it is called the caesura of the verse. The caesura is employed with great skill in the Homeric poems to make the verse more melodious and to aid in its recital.

There is almost always a caesura in the third foot. It occurs either after the first syllable of the foot, or else between the two short syllables.

The pause after the first syllable is called the masculine caesura, that after the second the feminine.


Hiatus after word τε (on hiatus see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1177, § 1178).

When a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the result is hiatus. Hiatus is ordinarily avoided in poetry either

1) by elision;

2) by the use of movable consonants, 561-563;

3) by the shortening of a final long vowel or diphtong, 1173;

4) by crasis or synizesis, 586-587.

Hiatus may be allowed

1) when there is a distinct pause in sense (diaeresis or caesura 1185-1189) between the vowels which produce it;

2) when the verse-accent (ictus) falls on the long vowel or diphtong which is followed by another vowel;

3) when elision has already taken place;

4) after ι or υ;

5) when a long vowel or diphtong is shortened (weak or improper hiatus).


Third foot masculine caesura after word ἄναξ.


Bucolic diaeresis after word καὶ (on diaeresis see Pharr Hom. Gr. § 1188, § 1189).

Whenever the end of a word coincides with the end of a foot, it is called diaeresis. When this falls with a pause, it is called the diaeresis of the verse.

The most important diaeresis is the one which comes at the end of the fourth foot. From its common employment in pastoral poetry it is called the bucolic diaeresis.


Foundry Painter. Hephaestus hands in the new Achilles' armor to Thetis (Iliad, XVIII, 617). Attic red-figure Kylix, 490–480 BC. Berlin, Altes Museum.

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2. Compilation sources

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4. Basic Analysis, Verses 1-2

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5. Author portrait

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