Greek Ο ο words — Dictionary and morphology

ὁ, ἡ, τό 0

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Dictionary article


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Text based on: Liddell H. G., Scott R. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Founded upon the 7th ed. of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1889. It would be better to find Oxford Clarendon edition

Format: original

ὁ, ἡ, τό, is

A. demonstr. Pronoun.

B. the definite Article.

C. in Ep., the relative Pronoun, when it is written with the accent ὅ, ἥ, τό = ὅς, ἥ, ὅ. Besides the common forms, note Ep. gen. sing. τοῖο for τοῦ; pl. nom. τοί, ταί; gen. fem. τάων [ᾰ], dat. τοῖσι, τῇς and τῇσι; dual gen, and dat. τοῖιν:—in Trag. we find τοὶ μέν. . , τοὶ δέ. . , for οἱ μέν. . , οἱ δέ. . ; dat. pl. also τοῖσι, ταῖσι: the dual has commonly but one gender, τώ for τά, τοῖν for ταῖν.


I. joined with a Subst., not as the Art., but like Lat. ille, ὁ Τυδείδης Tydeus, famous son, Il.; Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων Nestor—that aged man, Ib.; τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου for honour, namely that of Priam, Ib.

II. without a Subst., he, she, it, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε Ib., etc.

III. pecul. usages,

1. before Relat. Pronouns, to call attention to the foregoing noun, ἐφάμην σε περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, τῶν ὅσσοι Λυκίκην ναιετάουσιν far above the rest, namely above those who. . , Ib.

2. ὁ μέν. . , ὁ δέ. . , either in Opposition, ὁ μέν the former, ὁ δέ the latter), or in Partition, the one. . , the other. . , Lat. hic. . , ille. . .

IV. absolute usages of single cases,

1. fem. dat. τῇ, there, on that spot, Hom.; τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ Xen.:—with a notion of motion towards, thither, Il.

b. of Manner, τῇπερ in this way, thus, Od.; τῇ μέν. . , τῇ δέ. . , in one way. . , in another. . , or partly. . , partly, Eur., etc.

c. relative, where, for ἧ, Hom.

2. neut. gen. τοῦ, therefore, Id.

3. neut. dat. τῷ, therefore, Id., Soph.

b. thus, in this wise, then, if this be so, on this condition, Hom.

4. neut. acc. τό, wherefore, Id., Soph.; τὸ δέ, absol., but as to this. . , Plat.

5. τὸ μέν. . , τὸ δέ. . , partly. . , partly. . , or on the one hand. . , on the other. . , Od., Att.; τὰ μέν. . , τὰ δέ. . , Hdt., Soph., Thuc.; also, τὰ μέν τι. . , τὰ δέ τι. . , Xen.

6. with Prepositions, of Time, ἐκ τοῦ, Ep. τοῖο, ever since, Il.

b. πρὸ τοῦ, sometimes written προτοῦ, before this, aforetime, Hdt., Aesch.; so, ἐν τῷ προτοῦ χρόνῳ Thuc.

7. ἐν τοῖς is often used in Prose with Superlatives, ἐν τοῖς θειότατον one of the most marvellous things, Hdt.; ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι among the first, Thuc.

B. ὁ, ἡ, τό, THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, the indefin. being τὶς, τὶ, a or an. The use of ὁ, ἡ, τό, as the Article sprung from its use as demonstr. Pron., τὸν ὀπίστατον him that was hindmost, i.e. the hindmost man, Il.; τὸν ἄριστον him that was bravest, etc.;—also with Advs. τὸ πρίν, τὸ πάρος περ, τὸ πρόσθεν, τὸ τρίτον, τὰ πρῶτα all in Il.

II. the true Article is first fully established in Att.: it is omitted with prop. names and with appellatives which require no specification, as θεός, βασιλεύς:—but it is added to Prop. Names, when there has been previous mention of the person, as Thuc. speaks first of Πειθίας, and then refers to him as ὁ Π.; or to give pecul. emphasis, like Lat. ille, ὁ Λάϊος, ὁ Φοῖβος Soph.

2. with Infinitives, which thereby become Substantives, τὸ εἶναι the being; τὸ φρονεῖν good sense, etc.

3. in neuter, to specify any word or expression, τὸ ἄνθρωπος the word man; τὸ λέγω the word λέγω; τὸ μηδὲν ἄγαν the sentiment ‘ne quid nimis.’

4. before Pronouns,

a. before the pers. Pron., to give them greater emphasis, but only in acc., τὸν ἐμέ, τὸν σὲ καὶ ἐμέ Plat.

5. before the interrog., to make the question more precise, τὸ τί; Aesch., etc.; τὰ ποῖα; Eur.

III. Elliptic. expressions:

1. before the gen. of a prop. n., to express descent, ὁ Διός (sc. παῖς), ἡ Λητοῦς (sc. θυγάτηρ) often in Att.; but sometimes, as appears from the context, to denote husband, brother, friend, wife:—then before a gen. it indicates all general relations, as, τὰ τῆς πόλεως all that concerns the state; τὰ τῶν’ Αθηναίων φρονεῖν to hold with the Athenians, be on their side, Hdt.:—so with neut. of possess. Pron., τὸ ἐμόν, τὸ σόν what regards me or thee, my or thy business. But τὸ τινος is often also, a mans saying, as, τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος Hdt.

2. with cases governed by Preps., οἱ ἐν τῇ πόλει, οἱ ἀπὸ (or ἐκ) τῆς πόλεως the men of the city; οἱ ἀμφί τινα, οἱ περί τινα such an one and his followers, but also periphr. for the person himself.

3. on μὰ τόν, v. μά IV.

4. πορεύεσθαι τὴν ἔξω τείχους (sc. ὁδόν), Plat.; κρίνασθαι τὴν ἐπὶθάνατον, v. θάνατος 1. 2; ἡ αὔριον (sc. ἡμέρα) the morrow:—also with Advs., which thus take an Adject. sense, as, ὁ, ἡ, τὸ νῦν the present; οἱ τότε ἄνθρωποι the men of that time, also οἱ τότε, οἱ νῦν, etc.; τὸ πρίν formerly; τὸ πρόσθεν, τὸ πρῶτον, etc.; τὸ ἀπὸ τούτου, τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε from the present time, etc.

C. CRASIS OF ART.:—in Trag. ὁ, ἡ, τό, with ᾰ make ᾱ, as ἁνήρ, ἅνθρωπος, ἁλήθεια, ἁρετή, τἀγαθόν, τἀδικεῖν, τᾄτιον; so, οἱ, αἱ, τά, as ἅνδρες, ἅνθρωποι, τἀγαθά, τἀκίνητα; also τοῦ, τῷ, as τάγαθοῦ, τἀγαθῷ:—ὁ, τό, οἱ, with ε become ου, οὑξ, οὑπί, οὑμός, τοὔργον, οὑπιχώριοι, etc.; also τοῦ, as τοὐμοῦ, τοὐπιόντος; but in one case ᾱ, ἅτερος, θἄτερον, for οὔτερος (which is Ion.); τῷ remains unchanged, τὠμῷ, τὠπιόντι:—ἡ with ε becomes ᾱ, ἁτέρα:—ὁ, τό before ο becomes ου, as Οὕλυμπιος, τοὔνομα:—ὁ, τό, etc., before αυ do not change the diphthong, αὑτός, ταὐτό, ταὐτῷ; so, τὰ αὐτά = ταὐτά, αἱ αὐταί = αὑταί:—ἡ before εὐ becomes ηὑ, as ηὑλάβεια:—τῇ before ἡ becomes θη, as θἠμέρα:—τό before ὑ becomes θου-, as θοὔδωρ for τὸ ὕδωρ.


Inflection chart


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N. τό
G. τοῦ, τοῖο
D. τῷ
A. τό


N. τῶ
G. τοῖιν
D. τοῖιν
A. τῶ


N. τά
G. τῶν
D. τοῖσι, τοῖς
A. τά


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